Step-by-Step Guide to Implementing Domain Rename

Microsoft Corporation

Published: April 2008

Last Updated: August 2012

Abstract

This document provides the information and step-by-step instructions necessary to perform a domain rename operation in an existing implementation of the Active Directory directory service in a Microsoft® Windows® Server 2003 forest. When additional information is required, references to the Microsoft® Windows® Server 2003 Resource Kit and Windows Server 2003 Server Help and Support Center are provided.

The steps to prepare for and perform the domain rename procedure are described in this document. All preliminary steps must be completed before any steps in the domain rename process can be performed.

Prior to performing the steps in this document, it is highly recommended that you read and understand the document titled “Understanding How Domain Rename Works.”

Rendom

Published: April 17, 2012

Updated: April 17, 2012

Applies To: Windows 8, Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2003 with SP1, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012

[This topic is pre-release documentation and is subject to change in future releases. Blank topics are included as placeholders.]

Rendom.exe is a command-line tool that is used to rename Active Directory domains. A domain rename is a complex operation that also requires other tools and processes in addition to using Rendom.exe. For more information about renaming a Windows Server 2003 domain.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents    3

Introduction    5

Domain Rename Requirements    5

Preliminary Steps to Prepare for Domain Rename    6

Setting Windows Server 2003 Forest Functionality    7

How to Raise Forest Functional Level to Windows Server 2003    7

Creating Necessary Shortcut Trust Relationships    7

Types of Trust Relationships    7

Pre-Creating Parent-Child Trust Relationships for a Restructured Forest    8

How to Create Shortcut Trust Relationships    14

Preparing DNS Zones    14

How to Analyze and Prepare DNS Zones for Domain Rename    14

Preparing Folder Redirection to Domain-Based DFS    15

Preparing Roaming User Profiles on Domain-Based DFS    15

Configuring Member Computers for Host Name Changes    16

Conditions for Automatic Computer Name Change    16

Replication Effects of Renaming Large Numbers of Computers    17

Avoiding Replication Effects of Domain Rename in Large Deployments    18

How to Configure Member Computers for Host Name Changes in Large Deployments    20

Preparing Certification Authorities    25

Conditions that Preclude Successful Certificate Management    26

Preparing URLs for CDP and AIA Extensions before Domain Rename    26

Ensuring CA Validity    26

Steps to Perform the Domain Rename Procedure    27

Activities to Discontinue Prior to Domain Rename    28

How to Perform Domain Rename    28

STEP 1: Back Up All Domain Controllers    28

STEP 2: Set Up the Control Station    28

STEP 3: Generate the Current Forest Description    30

STEP 4: Specify the New Forest Description    32

STEP 5: Generate Domain Rename Instructions    37

STEP 6: Push Domain Rename Instructions to All DCs and Verify DNS Readiness    40

STEP 7: Verify Readiness of Domain Controllers    44

STEP 8: Execute Domain Rename Instructions    46

STEP 9: Unfreeze the Forest Configuration    50

STEP 10: Re-establish External Trusts    51

STEP 11: Fix Distributed File System (Dfs) Topology    51

STEP 12: Fix Group Policy Objects and Links    53

After the Domain Rename Procedure    57

Verify Certificate Security After Domain Rename    57

Preparing URLs for CDP and AIA Extensions after Domain Rename    57

Verifying the Use of User Principal Names (UPNs)    58

Enabling Certificate Enrollment in Renamed Domain    58

Verifying Validity of CDP and AIA Extensions    61

Renewing Subordinate and Issuing CA Certificates    61

Publish New Certificate Revocation Lists    61

Updating Domain Controller Certificates    61

Changing the User Identity for SCEP Add-on    62

Miscellaneous Tasks    62

Back Up Domain Controllers    64

Restart Member Computers    65

Attribute Clean-up After Domain Rename    66

Rename Domain Controllers (Optional)    67

APPENDIX A    69

Command Line Syntax for the Rendom Tool    69

Command-Line Syntax for the gpfixup Tool    73

APPENDIX B    76

Checklists    76

Satisfying Domain Rename Requirements    76

Preparing for the Domain Rename    76

Performing the Domain Rename    77

After the Domain Rename    79

Worksheets    80

Worksheet 1: Domain Name Change Information    80

Worksheet 2: Trust Information    80

Worksheet 3: DNS Zone Information    81

Worksheet 4: DFS, Folder Redirection, Roaming Profiles    81

Worksheet 5: Domain Controller Information    81

Worksheet 6: Domain Rename Execute Readiness    82

Worksheet 7: Software Distribution Point (SDP) Servers    82

Worksheet 8: Certificate Authority (CA) Information    82

Introduction

This document describes the requirments and the detailed step-by-step procedure necessary to plan and perform a domain rename operation. The checklists of the various tasks to be performed during the different phases of this procedure are summarized in Appendix B. Suggested worksheet formats for a variety of worksheets that can be used for gathering relevant information about the Active Directory infrastructure for planning and for tracking progress as the domain rename operation progresses are also included in Appendix B.

Domain Rename Requirements

The following conditions are required to be in effect before you can begin a domain rename procedure:

  • Exchange 2003 SP1: If your Active Directory forest contains only Exchange 2003 SP1 servers, you can run the domain rename operation, but you must also use the Exchange Domain Rename Fix-up Tool to update Exchange attributes. The Exchange Domain Rename Fix-up Tool is available on the Exchange Server 2003 Tools and Updates Web page (http://www.microsoft.com/exchange/updates). The document that accompanies the tool describes when and how to perform Exchange-related steps. To perform a domain rename operation, Exchange must not be installed on any domain controllers. If a domain controller is running Exchange, move the Exchange data off of the domain controller and uninstall Exchange.
  • Exchange 2003 or Exchange 2000 or Exchange 5.5: The domain rename operation is not supported in an Active Directory forest that contains Exchange 2000 or Exchange 5.5 servers. If the domain rename tool detects Exchange 2000 servers, the tool will not proceed. The domain rename tool will not detect whether Exchange 5.5 servers exist; therefore, do not attempt the operation if the forest contains Exchange 5.5 servers.
  • Renaming e-mail domains: The domain rename operation does not change the e-mail domains that are specified in Exchange recipient policies and e-mail addresses. If you want to change your e-mail domains, do so after the domain rename operation.
  • Forest functionality: You can rename domains only in a forest where all of the domain controllers are running Microsoft® Windows® .Server 2003 Standard Edition, Microsoft® Windows® Server 2003 Enterprise Edition, or Microsoft® Windows® Server 2003 Datacenter Edition operating systems, and the Active Directory forest functional level has been raised to Windows Server 2003. For more information about forest functional levels, see “Active Directory Functional Levels” in the Directory Services Guide of the Windows Server 2003 Resource Kit. For more information about how to determine forest functional levels, see “To verify forest level” and “To raise forest level” in Windows Server 2003 Server Help and Support Center.
  • Administrative privileges: The domain rename procedure requires Enterprise Admins privileges to perform the various steps in the procedure. If you are running Exchange, the account you use must also have Full Exchange Administrator permissions. The required permissions for each step in the procedure, along with the details of each step, are described in “Steps to Perform the Domain Rename Procedure” later in this document.
  • Control station: The computer to be used as the control station for the domain rename operation must be a member computer (not a domain controller) running Windows Server 2003 Standard Edition, Windows Server 2003 Enterprise Edition, or Windows Server 2003 Datacenter Edition.
  • DFS root servers: In order to be able to rename a domain with domain-based DFS roots, all DFS root servers must be running Windows 2000 with Service Pack 3 or a higher release of the Windows server.


Important

It is extremely important and highly recommended that you test the domain rename procedure prior to performing it in a production environment. First, perform the domain rename procedure described in this document in a test environment that has a minimum of two domains. Because domain rename is a complex procedure that affects every domain controller in your forest, you will find it very helpful to achieve headless management of the domain controllers in your forest before performing the domain rename procedure. Familiarizing yourself with the specifics of each step in the domain rename process in a test environment will provide you with not only a much better understanding of the procedure itself, but will also better prepare you to troubleshoot any issues that arise during execution of the procedure in a production forest.

Preliminary Steps to Prepare for Domain Rename

The goal of the preparation phase for the domain rename process is to ensure that the prerequisites for the domain rename operation are in place. This topic describes the steps that will ensure a smooth implementation of renaming or restructuring domains in your forest. Prior to following the steps in “Steps to Perform the Domain Rename Procedure” later in this document, be sure you have completed all of the preliminary procedures described in this section. If these prerequisites are not satisfied, domain rename cannot be performed successfully.

Setting Windows Server 2003 Forest Functionality

The domain rename operation is supported within an Active Directory forest if, and only if, all domain controllers in the forest are running Windows Server 2003 Standard Edition, Windows Server 2003 Enterprise Edition, or Windows Server 2003 Datacenter Edition, and the forest functionality has been raised to Windows Server 2003 or higher. Therefore, before you can rename a domain in your Active Directory forest, you must ensure that the forest functionality has been raised to at least Windows Server 2003.

How to Raise Forest Functional Level to Windows Server 2003

Raising the forest functional level to Windows Server 2003 is not possible if there is any domain controller in the forest that remains to be upgraded to Windows Server 2003 or if any domain in the forest still has Windows 2000 mixed domain functionality. Assuming these requirements are satisfied, you can raise the forest level to Windows Server 2003.


To raise the forest functionality to Windows Server 2003

  1. Open Active Directory Domains and Trusts.
  2. In the scope pane, right-click Active Directory Domains and Trusts and then click Raise Forest Functional Level.
  3. In the Select an available forest functional level box, click Windows Server 2003, and then click Raise.
  4. Click OK to raise the forest functionality, and then click OK again.

Creating Necessary Shortcut Trust Relationships

You can reposition any domain within the domain tree hierarchy of a forest, with the exception of the forest-root domain. Remember that although the forest root domain can be renamed (its DNS and NetBIOS names can change), it cannot be repositioned in such a way that you designate a different domain to become the new forest root domain. If your domain rename operation involves restructuring the forest through repositioning of the domains in the domain tree hierarchy as opposed to simply changing the names of the domains in-place, you first need to create the necessary shortcut trust relationships between domains such that the new forest structure has two-way transitive trust paths between every pair of domains in the target forest, just as your current forest does.

Types of Trust Relationships

A hierarchy of Active Directory domains is implemented by trust relationships between domains. The following types of trust relationships are established between domains within an Active Directory forest:

  • Parent-child: The trust that is established when you create a new domain in an existing tree in the forest. The Active Directory installation process creates a transitive two-way trust relationship automatically between the new domain (the child domain) and the domain that immediately precedes it in the namespace hierarchy (the parent domain).
  • Tree-root: The trust that is established when you add a new domain tree to the forest. The Active Directory installation process creates a transitive two-way trust relationship automatically between the domain you are creating (the new tree-root domain) and the forest root domain.
  • Shortcut: A manually created, one-way, transitive trust relationship between any two domains in the forest, created to shorten the trust path. In order to establish two-way shortcut trust relationships between two domains, you set up a shortcut trust relationship manually in each direction.

The effect of the transitive, two-way trust relationships that are created automatically by the Active Directory installation process is that there is complete trust between all domains in an Active Directory forest — every domain has a transitive trust relationship with its parent domain, and every tree-root domain has a transitive trust relationship with the forest root domain. If you use the domain rename process to restructure an existing Active Directory forest by altering the domain tree hierarchy, automatic creation of the necessary trust relationships does not occur. For this reason, as part of the preparation phase of domain rename, the trust relationships required to preserve complete trust between all domains in your new forest (after restructuring) must be pre-created manually.

Pre-Creating Parent-Child Trust Relationships for a Restructured Forest

If you plan to use the domain rename process to reposition one or more domains in the domain tree hierarchy, then for each domain you plan to reposition, the necessary shortcut trust relationships must be created between the domain you want to reposition and its new parent domain (or the forest root domain if the repositioned domain becomes a tree root). These pre-created trust relationships substitute for the required tree-root or parent-child trust relationships that will be missing in the restructured forest.

Pre-Creating a Parent-Child Trust Relationship

For example, suppose you want to restructure the cohowinery.com forest, shown in Figure 1, so that the products.sales.cohowinery.com domain becomes a child of the cohowinery.com domain. Before performing the domain rename operation to carry out this restructure, you must first create a two-way, transitive shortcut trust relationship between products.sales.cohowinery.com and cohowinery.com. This trust relationship pre-creates the two-way parent-child trust relationship that will be required for the targeted parent and child domains.

Figure 1 shows the before and after domain structures and the shortcut trust relationships you need to create that will serve as parent-child trust relationships in the target forest.

Figure 1    Shortcut trust relationships becomes parent-child trust relationship


Pre-Creating Multiple Parent-Child Trust Relationships

For scenarios where you need to restructure a domain that is both a child domain and a parent domain, you might need to create shortcut trust relationships in two places. For example, suppose you want to restructure the cohowinery.com forest, shown in Figure 2, to move the hr.sales.cohowinery.com domain so that it becomes a child of the eu.cohowinery.com domain. At the same time, you want to make its child domain, payroll.hr.sales.cohowinery.com, become a direct child of its current parent domain, sales.cohowinery.com. To perform this restructure operation, you will first need to create two shortcut trust relationships that will become the parent-child trust relationships for the new forest following the restructuring, as follows:

  • A two-way, transitive shortcut trust relationship between the eu.cohowinery.com and hr.sales.cohowinery.com domains, which will affect a two-way, transitive parent-child trust relationship between eu.cohowinery.com and hr.eu.cohowinery.com after restructuring.
  • A two-way, transitive shortcut trust relationship between the sales.cohowinery.com and payroll.hr.sales.cohowinery.com domains, which will affect a two-way, transitive parent-child trust relationship between sales.cohowinery.com and payroll.sales.cohowinery.com after restructuring.

Figure 2    Shortcut trust relationships provide parent-child trust relationships


These shortcut trusts are responsible for maintaining the two-way, transitive trust relationships that are required between the newly renamed domains once the domain rename process has been completed.

Pre-Creating a Tree-Root Trust Relationship with the Forest Root Domain

When a domain is renamed to become a new tree root, the new tree-root domain must have a two-way, transitive trust relationship with the forest root domain. For this scenario, you create a two-way shortcut trust relationship between the domain you want to rename to become a new tree-root domain, and the forest root domain.

For example, suppose you have a deep tree and you want to create a new tree by moving the lowest-level domain to become a tree-root domain. Figure 3 shows the two-way shortcut trust relationship you create, and the tree-root trust relationship it provides after restructure, when renaming the eu.sales.cohowinery.com domain to create the tree-root domain cohoeurope.com.

Figure 3    Shortcut trust relationship provides tree-root trust relationship


How to Create Shortcut Trust Relationships

Analyze the target forest structure that you intend to achieve. Considering the requirement of a two-way, transitive trust relationship between each pair of domains in the forest, create a list of shortcut trust relationships that will be necessary to preserve full trust relationships between all the domains in the target forest. Create the shortcut trust relationships so that they are in place when you begin the domain rename procedure.

For information about how to create shortcut trust relationships, see Windows Server 2003 Server Help and Support Center.

Preparing DNS Zones

When an application or client requests access to Active Directory, an Active Directory server (domain controller) is located by the DC Locator mechanism, as described in “Establishing a DNS Alias for a New Domain Name” in the document titled “How Domain Rename Works.”

In response to client requests for Active Directory services, DC Locator uses SRV resource records in DNS to locate domain controllers. In the absence of these DNS SRV resource records, directory clients experience failures when trying to access Active Directory. For this reason, before renaming an Active Directory domain, you need to be sure the appropriate DNS zones exist for the forest and for each domain. If the appropriate zones do not exist in DNS, you need to create the DNS zone(s) that will contain the SRV resource records for the renamed domains. It is also highly recommended that you configure the zone(s) to allow secure dynamic updates. This DNS zone requirement applies to each domain being renamed as part of the domain rename operation.

The DNS requirements to rename an Active Directory domain are identical to the DNS requirements to support an existing Active Directory domain. Your current DNS infrastructure already provides necessary support for your Active Directory domain using its current name, and usually you simply need to mirror the existing DNS infrastructure to add support for the planned new name of your domain.

For example, suppose you want to rename an existing Active Directory domain sales.cohovineyard.com to marketing.cohovineyard.com. If the SRV resource records registered by the domain controllers of the sales.cohovineyard.com Active Directory domain are registered in the DNS zone named sales.cohovineyard.com, then you will need to create a new DNS zone called marketing.cohovineyard.com corresponding to the new name of the domain. For more information about how to configure DNS to provide support for the Active Directory, see “Windows Server 2003 DNS” in the Networking Guide of the Windows Server 2003  Resource Kit.

How to Analyze and Prepare DNS Zones for Domain Rename

Before beginning the domain rename procedure, verify that any new zones that are required have been created and configured to allow dynamic updates. Use the considerations described in “Preparing DNS Zones,” earlier in this document, to analyze your current DNS infrastructure in relation to the new forest structure that you intend to have after the domain rename operation has completed.


To analyze and prepare DNS zones for domain rename

  1. Compile a list of DNS zones that need to be created.
  2. Use the DNS MMC snap-in to create the required DNS zones compiled in step 1.
  3. Configure DNS zones according to “Add a forward lookup zone” in Windows Server 2003 Server Help and Support Center.
  4. Configure dynamic DNS update according to “Allow dynamic updates” in Windows Server 2003 Server Help and Support Center.

Preparing Folder Redirection to Domain-Based DFS

Windows 2000 Server family and Windows Server 2003 Server family provide the ability to redirect a set of special folders for users, such as the My Documents folder, from the local computer to a network location. Folder Redirection is an extension to Group Policy that allows you to identify network locations for these folders on specific servers or Distributed File System (DFS) roots. If you are redirecting folders to network locations that use domain-based DFS paths (\\domainName\DFSRoot), renaming the Active Directory domain invalidates the domain-based DFS path. If the redirected path is no longer valid, Folder Redirection stops working.


Note

If the NetBIOS name of a domain is used in domain-based DFS paths and the NetBIOS name of the domain is not changed during a domain rename operation, then the domain-based DFS path will continue to be valid.

To allow Folder Redirection to continue to work following a domain rename operation, folders that are redirected to a domain-based DFS path for a domain that is going to be renamed must instead be redirected to a server-based share or standalone DFS path prior to renaming the domain. Server-based paths are unaffected by the domain rename operation. Folder Redirection to a server-based path instead of a domain-based DFS path can be configured using the Folder Redirection Group Policy extension. For information about how to use Group Policy to redirect special folders to a network location, see Windows Server 2003 Server Help and Support Center.

Preparing Roaming User Profiles on Domain-Based DFS

Windows 2000 Server family and Windows Server 2003 Server family provide support for roaming user profiles where the user profile (as well as home directory) can be located on a network location. Just as for Folder Redirection, discussed earlier, if roaming user profiles (and home directory) are placed on network locations using domain-based DFS paths, renaming the domain invalidates the path and roaming profiles that use the path stop working.


Note

If the NetBIOS name of a domain is used in domain-based DFS paths and the NetBIOS name of the domain is not changed during a domain rename operation, then the domain-based DFS path will continue to be valid.

To ensure that network share-based user profiles continue to work following a domain rename operation, user profiles located on a domain-based DFS path for a domain that is going to be renamed must instead be relocated to a server-based share or standalone DFS path. Server-based paths are unaffected by the domain rename operation. For information about how to create roaming user profiles, see Windows Server 2003 Server Help and Support Center.

Configuring Member Computers for Host Name Changes

By default, the Primary DNS Suffix
of a member computer of an Active Directory domain is configured to change automatically when domain membership of the computer changes. The same default behavior is true when the DNS name of the domain to which a computer is joined changes. Thus, rename of an Active Directory domain can cause modification of the primary DNS suffix and, therefore, of the full DNS host names of the computers that are the members of the renamed domain. For example, if the sales.cohowinery.com domain is renamed to marketing.cohowinery.com, then the primary DNS suffix of the member computers of this domain might also change from sales.cohowinery.com to marketing.cohowinery.com, depending on whether the default behavior is in effect. If the default behavior is in effect, the full DNS host name of a computer in the renamed domain will change from host.sales.cohowinery.com to host.marketing.cohowinery.com.

Conditions for Automatic Computer Name Change

The primary DNS suffix, and therefore the full DNS name of a member computer in an Active Directory domain, changes when the domain is renamed if both of the following conditions are true:

  • Primary DNS suffix of the computer is configured to be updated when domain membership changes.
  • No Group Policy specifying a primary DNS suffix is applied to the member computer.

These conditions represent the default configuration for computers running Windows 2000, Windows XP, and Windows Server 2003 Server family. If you do not know how the primary DNS suffix of the computers in your enterprise are configured, see “How to Determine the Primary DNS Suffix Configuration” later in this document.

Keep in mind that the DNS suffix setting also applies to servers running Exchange. When determining the primary DNS suffix configuration for your servers, also check your Exchange servers.


Note

The DNS host names of domain controllers in a renamed domain are not changed automatically to use the new domain DNS name as the primary DNS suffix, regardless of the primary DNS suffix configuration. In other words, the DNS names of domain controllers in a renamed domain will remain unchanged. The domain controllers can be renamed in a separate step after the domain rename operation has been completed using a special DC rename procedure. For more information on how to rename a DC, see “Rename a domain controller” in Windows Server 2003 Server Help and Support Center.

Replication Effects of Renaming Large Numbers of Computers

If the conditions that prompt automatic update of the DNS host names for all computers in the domain are true, and if there are a large number of member computers in the domain that is being renamed, replication of that many changes might cause excessive traffic on your network.

Recall that a computer name change triggers update of the dnsHostName and servicePrincipalName attributes on the corresponding computer account in Active Directory. These attributes will typically be updated during a reboot of the member computer, as required by the domain rename procedure after the domain is renamed. Update of these attributes by a large number of computers within a short period of time might trigger replication activity that saturates the network. Moreover, computer name change triggers update of the host (A) and pointer (PTR) DNS resource records in the DNS database. Such updates also cause additional replication traffic, regardless of whether DNS zones are stored in Active Directory or some other DNS store. For these reasons, you should prepare for the domain rename operation in advance by reconfiguring the default behavior that changes the primary DNS suffix on member computers when a domain is renamed.

To avoid replication and other update traffic caused by automatic update of the primary DNS suffix on all member computers following a domain rename, you can use Group Policy to revise the primary DNS suffix to the new domain name prior to the domain rename so that member names are not automatically updated, but have the correct primary DNS suffix at the time you perform the domain rename.


Note

You do not have to match the DNS suffix to the new domain name. If your current implementation uses a primary DNS suffix that does not match the DNS name of the domain to which the member computers are joined, and if you do not want the DNS suffix to change following domain rename, you can ensure that these computers are not renamed after domain rename by verifying that at least one of the two conditions enumerated in “Conditions for Automatic Computer Name Change” is not satisfied.

Avoiding Replication Effects of Domain Rename in Large Deployments

The replication traffic that results from member computer names being updated is a function of the number of computers that are members of the renamed domain. This replication “storm” that can result from thousands of computer names being changed at approximately the same time is a problem for only the largest deployments. If you do not think that the resulting replication traffic poses any problem (risk of network congestion or saturation) to your infrastructure, then this preparatory step (the entire section for “Configuring Member Computers for Host Name Changes”) can be skipped. The DNS names of the member computers in the renamed domain will be automatically changed as a result of the domain rename operation.

On the other hand, if the number of member computers in the domain to be renamed is large and the consequent replication traffic does pose the risk of network congestion in your environment, then you should prepare for an Active Directory domain rename operation in advance so that the member computers can be renamed in smaller batches to mitigate the replication traffic problem. In this case, you can take steps so that computers will not be renamed following domain rename by ensuring that at least one of the two conditions in “Conditions for Automatic Computer Name Change,” earlier in this document, is not true.

Rather than going to each computer and changing the setting so that the computer name is not updated automatically when the domain name changes, you can use Group Policy to establish the primary DNS suffix for all computers in the domain as the target DNS domain name. Doing so has the following beneficial effects:

  • You disable the default behavior of updating the DNS suffix when the DNS domain name changes, thereby avoiding excessive volumes of replication.
  • The computer names are preconfigured to have a primary DNS suffix that matches the target domain name after the domain rename.

Use Group Policy to Apply the New Primary DNS Suffix Before Renaming Domains

If you establish the planned new name of the domain as the primary DNS suffix for all computers in the domain before you rename the domain, you can ensure that your member computers are not renamed automatically following the domain rename procedure. In this way, you can avoid the potential problem where replication of name-change updates negatively affects network performance immediately following the domain rename.

You can use the Group Policy setting Primary DNS Suffix to establish the primary DNS suffix for the domain as the new DNS domain name. When this Group Policy setting is in effect, it overrides the default behavior of changing the primary DNS suffix when the DNS name of the domain changes. In this case, the computer names remain the same when you rename the domain and replication of name changes does not occur.

Apply Group Policy in Stages to Avoid Significant Replication

Applying the Group Policy setting Primary DNS Suffix does change the DNS suffix and precipitate a name change, so you must manage the Group Policy application in stages, depending on how many member computers are in the domain that is being renamed. To apply Group Policy to all member computers in the domain or domains being renamed, while also avoiding replication on a large scale, you need to divide computer objects among several locations in Active Directory — either organizational units or sites, or both. In deployments where member computers exist in numbers that could affect network efficiency if all computers were renamed at the same time, you will want to have computers distributed among several organizational units in any case, for ease of administration. If member computers at both the site and organizational unit levels are too numerous to undergo a name change without causing excessive replication, you might want to create additional organizational units to temporarily house some of the computers so that you can apply Group Policy in stages.


Important

Do not apply the Group Policy setting to cause a DNS host name change for member servers that are housing Software Distribution Points for managed software deployment in your domain. You should wait until the step “STEP 12: Fix Group Policy objects and Links” in the procedure described in “Steps to Perform the Domain Rename Procedure” later in this document. The member servers housing software distribution points will change their DNS host name at that step once they are rebooted.

For step-by-step instructions for applying this Group Policy, see “How to Configure Member Computers for Host Name Changes in Large Deployments” later in this document.

Configuration Required Before Applying Group Policy

When you apply the Group Policy setting Primary DNS Suffix, the DNS suffix of member computers will no longer match the DNS name of the domain of which they are members. To allow the member computers of a domain to have a primary DNS suffix that does not match the DNS domain name, you must first configure the domain to accept the names that the DNS suffix can have. This configuration must be in place before you can set Group Policy to apply to a set of computers.

To configure the set of DNS suffixes that can be applied to computers in the domain, add a new value (or values) to the msDS-AllowedDNSSuffixes multi-valued attribute of the domain object (the domainDns object for the domain) such that the attribute contains a list of DNS suffixes that member computers of the Active Directory domain can have. This procedure is described in “How to Configure the Domain to Allow a Primary DNS Suffix that Does Not Match the Domain Name” later in this document. When you apply the Group Policy setting Primary DNS Suffix, you will specify one of the DNS suffixes that you have added to the msDS-AllowedDNSSuffixes attribute.

If you apply the Primary DNS suffix Group Policy setting to the computers in the domain to be renamed, we highly recommend that you set the DNS Suffix Search List Group Policy and apply it to the computers within the domain being renamed. The DNS Suffix Search List should contain the old primary DNS suffix, new primary DNS suffix, and potentially parent suffixes of the old and new primary DNS suffixes (the latter depends on whether parent name spaces are being used in the organization). For example, suppose the old name of a domain was payroll.hr.sales.cohowinery.com (and correspondingly the old primary DNS suffix as well). Also, suppose the new name of the domain is payroll.sales.cohowinery.com (and correspondingly the new primary DNS suffix as well). So the DNS Suffix Search List should contain the following suffixes:

  • payroll.hr.sales.cohowinery.com
  • payroll.sales.cohowinery.com

and may contain

  • hr.sales.cohowinery.com
  • sales.cohowinery.com
  • cohowinery.com

Such configuration preserves the ability of users to resolve the DNS names of computers in the domain being renamed by specifying first label only of the full DNS names of computers even during the transition period when a user’s computer and resource server may have different primary DNS suffixes.

For the same reason, if computers in another domain were configured with the DNS Suffix Search List containing the old name of a domain being renamed then during the domain rename procedure those computers should be reconfigured such that the DNS Suffix Search List is updated to contain both the old and new domain names. Note that the Group Policy setting for the DNS Suffix Search List is not supported on versions of Windows before Windows XP.

How to Configure Member Computers for Host Name Changes in Large Deployments

If your Active Directory implementation is large enough to warrant updating the primary DNS suffix prior to domain rename (you want to avoid the effects of excessive replication of computer name changes following domain rename), you must perform several procedures, as described in this topic.

As a preliminary step, if you do not know how your member computers are configured relative to updating the primary DNS suffix if the membership domain changes, you will first want to establish these conditions.

How to Determine the Primary DNS Suffix Configuration

The following procedures explain two ways to view the setting for a member computer that determines whether the primary DNS suffix changes when the name of the membership domain changes.


To use Control Panel to check for primary DNS suffix update configuration for a computer

  1. On a member computer, in Control Panel, double-click System.
  2. Click the Computer Name tab and then click Change.
  3. Click More and then verify whether Change primary domain suffix when domain membership changes is selected.
  4. Click OK until all dialog boxes are closed.


To use the registry to check for primary DNS suffix update configuration for a computer

  1. On the Start menu, click Run.
  2. In the Open box, type regedit and then click OK.
  3. Navigate to HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Tcpip\Parameters.
  4. Verify whether the value of REG_RWORD SyncDomainWithMembership is 0x1. This value indicates that the primary DNS suffix changes when the domain membership changes.

How to Determine Whether Group Policy Controls the Primary DNS Suffix for the Computer

You can also determine whether Group Policy is applied to the computer to specify the primary DNS suffix. There are several ways to discover this information, as described in the following procedure.


To determine whether Group Policy specifies the primary DNS suffix for a computer

  • On a member computer, perform one of the following steps:
    • At a command prompt, type gpresult. In the output, under Applied Group Policy objects, check to see whether Primary DNS Suffix is listed.
    • Open the Resultant Set of Policy Wizard, as follows:

      In Active Directory Users and Computers, right-click the computer object, click All Tasks, and then click Resultant Set of Policy (Logging).

    • Open a command prompt and then type:

      ipconfig /all

      Check the Primary DNS Suffix in the output. If it does not match the primary DNS suffix that is specified in the System Control Panel for the computer (see “To use Control Panel to check for primary DNS suffix update configuration for a computer” earlier in this document), then the Primary DNS Suffix Group Policy is applied.

    • In the registry, check for the presence of the entry Primary DNS Suffix under HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Policies\Microsoft\System\DNSclient. If a value is present, then the Primary DNS Suffix Group Policy is applied to the computer.

How to Configure the Domain to Allow a Primary DNS Suffix that Does Not Match the Domain Name

Before you apply Group Policy to set the primary DNS suffix for each renamed domain, create a list of the DNS suffixes you want to use for each domain. The only primary DNS suffix available to the domain by default is the DNS name of the domain itself. To make these different DNS suffixes available to member computers, you must first make the DNS suffixes known to the domains in which you want to use them. You add DNS suffixes to the domain by editing the attribute msDS-AllowedDNSSuffixes on the domain object to contain the additional DNS domain names that are available to be used as DNS suffixes for that domain.

The ability to add a primary DNS suffix that is different from the current DNS domain name has the following requirements:

  • All domain controllers in the domain must be running Windows Server 2003.
  • For each new DNS suffix that you add, a subdomain by that name must exist in DNS.


Caution

The same value in the msDS-AllowedDNSSuffixes attribute cannot be used for more than one domain in the forest. This undesired configuration enables a malicious administrator of a computer joined to one such domain to set the servicePrincipalName attribute of its computer account to the same value as the SPN of a computer in the other domain that is configured to allow the same DNS suffix. Such a configuration prevents Kerberos authentication against both of these computers.

To create the list of allowed DNS suffixes for the domain, use ADSI Edit to modify the msDSAllowedDNSSuffixes attribute value on the domain object in Active Directory. ADSI Edit is a Support Tool that you can use to edit attributes. If you do not have Support Tools installed, you can install them from the Support folder on the operating system CD.


To install Support Tools

  1. On the Windows Server 2003 Standard Edition, Windows Server 2003 Enterprise Edition, or Windows Server 2003 Datacenter Edition operating system CD, double-click the Support folder.
  2. In the Support folder, double-click the Tool folder and then run suptools.msi.

The attribute msDSAllowedDNSSuffixes is an attribute of the domain object. Therefore, you must set DNS suffixes for each domain whose name is going to change.


To use ADSI Edit to add DNS suffixes to msDSAllowedDNSSuffixes

  1. On the Start menu, point to Programs, Windows Server 2003 Support Tools, Tools, and then click ADSI Edit.
  2. Double-click the domain directory partition for the domain you want to modify.
  3. Right-click the domain container object, and then click Properties.
  4. On the Attribute Editor tab, in the Attributes box, double-click the attribute msDSAllowedDNSSuffixes.
  5. In the Multi-valued String Editor dialog box, in the Value to add box, type a DNS suffix and then click Add.
  6. When you have added all the DNS suffixes for the domain, click OK.
  7. Click OK to closed the Properties dialog box for that domain.
  8. In the scope pane, right-click ADSI Edit and click Connect to.
  9. Under Computer, click Select or type a domain or server.
  10. Type the name of the next domain for which you want to set the primary DNS suffix, and then click OK.
  11. Repeat steps 2 through 7 for that domain.
  12. Repeat steps 8 through 10 to select each subsequent domain and repeat steps 2 through 7 to set the primary DNS suffix for each subsequent domain that is being renamed.

How to Use Group Policy to Predefine the Primary DNS Suffix Prior to Domain Rename

If you have a large number of member computers in the domain or domains to be renamed and you want to prevent excessive replication following domain rename, you can rename the computers gradually in small batches before the actual domain rename operation. Predefining the primary DNS suffix results in the renaming of member computers. You can predefine the primary DNS suffix for each domain by using Group Policy to apply a new primary DNS suffix that matches the new DNS name of the domain. To prepare for this step, create groups of member computers to which Group Policy can then be applied.

Preparing Groups of Computers for Group Policy Application

The following procedure describes the exact sequence of steps to rename member computers one group at a time, and how to determine the size of the group of member computers that is small enough to avoid excess replication in your network.

Perform the following sequence of actions for each domain to be renamed by your forest restructuring operation.


To prepare groups to apply Group Policy to change the primary DNS suffix

  1. Estimate the largest number of computers (N) that can be renamed in your environment such that the resulting replication traffic can be sustained by your network without becoming saturated. It is our expectation that N=1000 would be an acceptable number.
  2. Divide the member computers in the domain to be renamed into groups, each group containing no more than the number of computers N estimated in step 1, such that the new primary DNS suffix can be applied to one group at a time.


Note

The “groups” specified in this step are purely imaginary entities representing some collection of computers; there might be no actual object corresponding to such a group in the domain. For example, the combination of two organizational units, or one site, or one site plus an organizational unit, and so on, might be used to form one group, provided the number of computers in the group does not exceed the number N of computers specified in step 1. If existing sites and organizational units all contain more computers than the number N specified in step 1, then you might need to create one or more temporary organizational units for the purpose of grouping computers such that the new primary DNS suffix can be applied to one group (in this case, one or more organizational units) at a time. As an alternative, the scope of application of the Group Policy can be restricted to one group by creating a temporary security group consisting of the group of computers that should receive the policy and setting security permissions on the Group Policy object accordingly using the security group just created.

  1. Create a staggered schedule for when the new primary DNS suffix will be applied to each group of computers established in step 2. Ensure that there is sufficient time between two consecutive applications of the Group Policy setting Primary DNS Suffix to two different groups of computers to allow replication to occur. Replication of the updated dnsHostName and servicePrincipalName attributes on computer accounts and replication of the DNS records of the renamed computers must be fully completed during the scheduled gap.
  2. Configure the domain that is being renamed to allow member computers of the domain to register the new primary DNS suffix in the dnsHostName attribute of their corresponding computer accounts in Active Directory, as described in “How to Configure the Domain to Allow a Primary DNS Suffix that Does Not Match the Domain Name” earlier in this document.
Applying Group Policy to Set the Primary DNS Suffix

Start applying the Group Policy setting Primary DNS Suffix to one group of computers at a time according to the schedule prepared in Step 3 above. It is necessary that the new primary DNS suffix be applied to all member computers in a domain before the domain is renamed.


Note

The group of member computers to which this Group Policy setting is applied will need to be rebooted for the host name change to take effect.


To apply the Group Policy setting Primary DNS Suffix to groups of member computers

  1. In Active Directory Users and Computers, right-click the domain or organizational unit that contains the group of computers to which you are applying Group Policy.

    -Or-

    In Active Directory Sites and Services, right-click the site object that contains the computers to which you are applying Group Policy.

  2. Click the Group Policy tab.
  3. In the Group Policy object Links box, click the Group Policy object that you want to contain the Primary DNS Suffix setting.

    -Or-

    To create a new Group Policy object, click New and then type a name for the object.

  4. With the Group Policy object selected, click Edit.
  5. Under Computer Configuration, click to expand Administrative Templates, Network, and then click DNS Client.
  6. In the results pane, double-click Primary DNS Suffix.
  7. Click Enabled, and then in the Enter a primary DNS suffix box, type the DNS suffix for the domain whose member computers are in the group you selected in Step 1.
  8. Click OK.
  9. Close the Group Policy dialog box, and then close the properties page for the selected object.

After the Active Directory domain has been renamed (you have completed all procedures detailed in “Steps to Perform the Domain Rename Procedure” later in this document), and after all member computers have had time to restart, you can disable the Group Policy setting you enabled in step 7 of the above procedure.


Note

The steps in the preceding procedure result in naming member computers only, not domain controllers. Renaming mission-critical servers such as domain controllers requires special preparation that is beyond the scope of this document. For information about how to rename a domain controller, see “To rename a domain controller” in Windows Server 2003 Server Help and Support Center. It is strongly recommended that you carefully read this Help documentation and then rename DCs in a renamed domain according to the specified recommendations only after the domain rename operation has been successfully completed.

Preparing Certification Authorities

Management of enterprise certificates can be sustained through a domain rename procedure when the following requirements are in effect prior to domain rename:

  • The CAs are not installed on domain controllers.
  • As a best practice all of the CAs should include both Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) and Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) in their Authority Information Access (AIA) and Certificate Distribution Point (CDP) extensions.


Caution

If any certificate issued by the CA has only one of these URL types, then the certificate may or may not work. Depending on the complexity of your domain configuration, steps described in this document might not be sufficient for proper management of CAs after the domain rename operation. Proceed with this only if you have considerable expertise in handing Microsoft CAs.

Assuming these requirements are met, follow the steps described in “Preparing URLs for CDP and AIA Extensions before Domain Rename” later in this document. Then, following domain rename, perform the follow-up procedures described in “Verify Certificate Security After Domain Rename” at the end of this document.

Conditions that Preclude Successful Certificate Management

If one or more of the following conditions exist at the time of domain rename, CA management is not supported:

  1. The CA is configured to have only LDAP URLs for its CDP or AIA. Because the old LDAP extensions would be invalid following the domain rename operation, all the certificates issued by the CA are no longer valid. As a workaround, it would be necessary to renew the existing CA hierarchy and all issued End Entity certificates.
  2. Interdomain trust relationship based on cross-certification with name constraints. Following the domain rename operation, the name constraints might not be valid. As a workaround, you will need to reissue cross-certificates with appropriate name constraints.
  3. RFC 822-style email name is used in the user account. If the CA (or the certificate template) is configured to include RFC 822-type e-mail names and this name style is used in the Certificates that are issued, these certificates will contain an incorrect email name after domain rename operation. Any such Active Directory accounts should be changed prior to issuing any certificate.

Preparing URLs for CDP and AIA Extensions before Domain Rename

As a best practice the default LDAP and HTTP URLs require no special configuration prior to the domain rename operation.

Ensuring CA Validity

Prior to beginning the domain rename procedure, ensure that the certificate revocation lists (CRLs) and the CA certificates are not going to expire soon. If you find that they are close to expiration, complete the following tasks prior to domain rename:

  1. Renew the CA certificates.
  2. Issue new CRL with appropriate validity period.
  3. Wait until both of the above have propagated to all client machines.

For more information about managing certificates, see “Certificate Services and Public Key Infrastructure” in the Distributed Services Guide of the Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Resource Kit and see Windows Server 2003 Server Help and Support Center.

Exchange-Specific Step: Preparing a Domain that Contains Exchange

If the domain contains Exchange 2003 SP1 servers, there are additional steps that you must perform when preparing to run a domain rename operation. Refer to the document that accompanies the Exchange Domain Rename Fix-up Tool, which is available at the Exchange 2003 Tools and Updates Web page (http://www.microsoft.com/exchange/updates). The document describes preliminary steps and instructions for running the Exchange Domain Rename Fix-up Tool. As part of the preliminary steps, you must move Exchange off of all domain controllers and discontinue Exchange configuration changes.

Steps to Perform the Domain Rename Procedure

The step-by-step procedures that you perform to actually execute the domain rename operation in your forest is presented in this section. Before performing any steps in this section, be sure you have reviewed and completed every preliminary procedure that applies to your domain rename conditions, as described in “Preliminary Steps to Prepare for Domain Rename” earlier in this document.

After executing the last step documented in this section, the target domain name changes will be effective in your forest (all the domain controllers in your forest, as well as the member computers in the renamed domains, will have learned of the domain name changes). A brief period of interruption in your Active Directory forest service occurs during this procedure during the time that all the domain controllers in the forest are automatically rebooting. The exact point at which the service interruption occurs is indicated in the procedure. Except for this brief period of interruption, the Active Directory service should continue to be available and function normally throughout the rest of this procedure.

A number of tasks need to be performed following completion of the core procedures. These post-domain rename tasks are described in “After the Domain Rename Procedure” later in this document.

Before starting on the steps in the domain rename procedure enumerated in this section, it is essential that you perform several housekeeping administrative tasks and ensure that your forest is quiescent with regards to the type of changes as outlined in the checklist below.

Activities to Discontinue Prior to Domain Rename

When your domain rename plan is in place and preliminary procedures have been completed as described in “Preliminary Steps to Prepare for Domain Rename,” you must ensure that your forest is quiescent. Prior to beginning any steps in this section, several activities must be discontinued in your forest.

Until you have completed all domain rename procedures through Step 10 in this section, discontinue the following activities:

  • Creating new domains in or removing existing domains from your forest.
  • Creating new application directory partitions in, or removing existing application directory partitions from, your forest.
  • Adding domain controllers to or removing domain controllers from your forest.
  • Creating or deleting shortcut trusts within your forest.
  • Adding attributes to or removing attributes from the set of attributes that replicate to the global catalog (called the partial attribute set).

These activities can be resumed after you have successfully completed STEP 9 in “How to Perform Domain Rename” later in this document.

How to Perform Domain Rename

This section describes in detail the steps necessary to perform the domain rename operation in your forest. Each of the steps in the procedure must be performed in the sequence in which they are presented.

Beginning with Step 2, each step in the procedure contains information about prerequisites for the step, the authorization level (credentials) required to complete the step, and the actions that you take. Before beginning the procedures, read through them to be sure you have addressed all prerequisites and that you have membership in the groups that are required for performing the steps. Following the procedures, troubleshooting information is provided, if any.

STEP 1: Back Up All Domain Controllers

Perform a full system state backup of all domain controllers in the forest. For information about how to back up domain controllers, see “Backing up and Restoring Active Directory” in the Directory Services Guide of the Windows Server 2003 Resource Kit.

STEP 2: Set Up the Control Station

In this step, you will set up a single computer as the administrative control station for the entire domain rename operation. All the steps in the procedures described in this section are performed and controlled from this computer. You will copy all the required tools to perform the domain rename operation to a directory on the local disk of the control station and execute them from there. Although the domain rename operation involves contacting each domain controller in the forest, the domain controllers are contacted remotely by the domain rename tools from the control station.

Prerequisites

  • Computer: Use a computer that is a member of a domain in the forest in which domain rename is to be performed to serve as the control station.
  • Operating system: The computer must be a member computer (not a domain controller) running Windows Server 2003 Standard Edition, Windows Server 2003 Enterprise Edition, or Windows Server 2003 Datacenter Edition.
  • Operating system CD: You will need the Windows Server 2003 Standard Edition, Windows Server 2003 Enterprise Edition, or Windows Server 2003 Datacenter Edition operating system CD.


Important

Do not use a domain controller to act as the control station for this domain rename operation.

Required Authorization Level

To set up the control station computer, you must be a member of the Local Administrators group (or an authenticated user that has write access to a local disk drive) on the machine chosen as the control station.

Actions

In this step, you will use command line instructions to copy files from the operating system CD to the control station computer. You will also install Windows Server 2003 Support Tools from the operating system CD.


To set up the control station with the required tools for the domain rename operation

  1. On the control station computer, create a directory named X:\DomainRename where X: is a local disk drive on the selected control station.


Note

All subsequent invocations of the tools used in this procedure should be executed from within this directory. The directory name is not required to be “DomainRename,” but this name is used as the example in describing this procedure.

  1. Insert the Windows Server 2003 Standard Edition, Windows Server 2003 Enterprise Edition, or Windows Server 2003 Datacenter Edition operating system CD into the CDROM drive and copy the files from the valueadd directory as follows.

    copy M:\valueadd\msft\mgmt\domren\*.* X:\domren

    where M: is the CDROM drive. In particular, verify that the two tools rendom.exe and gpfixup.exe have been copied into the working directory X:\DomainRename on the control station.

  2. Install the Support Tools from the Support\Tools folder on the Windows Server 2003 Standard Edition, Windows Server 2003 Enterprise Edition, or Windows Server 2003 Datacenter Edition operating system CD. (To install Support Tools, run suptools.msi in the Support\Tools directory.) In particular, verify that the tools repadmin.exe and dfsutil.exe are installed on the control station.

    If the control station computer is a member server running Windows Server 2003 Standard Edition, Windows Server 2003 Enterprise Edition, or Windows Server 2003 Datacenter Edition, then the control station setup is complete at this point.

Troubleshooting Notes

None.

STEP 3: Generate the Current Forest Description

In this step, you will generate a description of your current forest structure as an XML-encoded file containing a list of all the domain directory partitions as well as application directory partitions that constitute your forest. The forest description file generated at this step is the basis from which the domain name changes will be specified in the subsequent step.

Prerequisites

The forest in which the domain rename operation is being performed must have Windows Server 2003 forest functionality or higher. Otherwise, the domain rename tool rendom.exe reports an error and cannot proceed with further steps.

Required Authorization Level

To perform this step, you must be a member of the following groups:

  • The Enterprise Admins group in the current forest.
  • The Local Administrators group (or an authenticated user that has write access to the X:\DomainRename working directory) on the control station.


Note

You can use credentials other than those with which you are currently logged on. To use alternate credentials, use the /user and /pwd command-line switches of rendom, as described in “Command Line Syntax for the Rendom Tool” in the Appendix A of this document.

Actions

To perform this step, you will use Rendom from a command prompt.


To generate the current forest description file

  1. On the control station, open a command prompt and change to the X:\DomainRename directory.
  2. At the command prompt, type the following command and press ENTER:

    rendom /list

  3. Save a copy of the current forest description file (domainlist.xml) generated in step 2 as domainlist-save.xml for future reference by using the following copy command:

    copy domainlist.xml domainlist-save.xml

The /list option of the domain rename tool creates an XML-encoded file named domainlist.xml in the current directory (in this example, X:\DomainRename). This file contains a textual description of your current forest structure as a list of all the domain directory partitions and application directory partitions contained in your forest. This file includes an entry for every domain and application directory partition, where each entry is bounded by the <Domain></Domain> XML tags, as shown in the example in Figure 4. Each entry for a domain (or an application directory partition) contains naming data for it that includes the object GUID of the partition root object, the DNS name of the domain (or application directory partition), and the NetBIOS name of the domain (an application directory partition does not have a NetBIOS name).

The example in Figure 4 below shows the contents of the domainlist.xml file after the rendom /list command was executed in a forest with two domains named cohovineyard.com (with a NetBIOS name of COHOVINEYARD) and sales.cohovineyard.com (with a NetBIOS name of SALES).

In addition to the two entries corresponding to the two domains in the forest, the following three entries appear, corresponding to the application directory partitions that are used by the Active Directory-integrated DNS service:

  • DomainDnsZones.sales.cohovineyard.com
  • DomainDnsZones.cohovineyard.com
  • ForestDnsZones.cohovineyard.com

These application directory partitions must also be renamed.

Figure 4    Forest description file for cohovineyard.com forest

<?xml version = “1.0”?>

<Forest>

<Domain>


<!— PartitionType:Application —>


<Guid>59add6bb-d0e8-499e-82b9-8aaca5d3e18b</Guid>


<DNSname>DomainDnsZones.sales.cohovineyard.com</DNSname>


<NetBiosName></NetBiosName>


<DcName></DcName>


</Domain>


<Domain>


<Guid>89cf8ae3-f4a3-453b-ac5c-cb05a76bfa40</Guid>


<DNSname>sales.cohovineyard.com</DNSname>


<NetBiosName>SALES</NetBiosName>


<DcName></DcName>


</Domain>


<Domain>


<!— PartitionType:Application —>


<Guid>f018941b-c899-4601-bfa7-5c017e9d31e7</Guid>


<DNSname>ForestDnsZones.cohovineyard.com</DNSname>


<NetBiosName></NetBiosName>


<DcName></DcName>


</Domain>


<Domain>


<!— PartitionType:Application —>


<Guid>f018941b-c899-4601-bfa7-5c017e9d31f3</Guid>


<DNSname>DomainDnsZones.cohovineyard.com</DNSname>


<NetBiosName></NetBiosName>


<DcName></DcName>


</Domain>


<Domain>


<! — – ForestRoot —>


<Guid>89cf6b34-d753-32a8-da6b-6a8e04bc48a4</Guid>


<DNSname> cohovineyard.com</DNSname>


<NetBiosName>COHOVINEYARD</NetBiosName>


<DcName></DcName>


</Domain>

</Forest>

Notice that the entry for an application directory partition is specially annotated with an XML comment of the following form:

<!— PartitionType:Application —>

Similarly, the entry for the root domain of the forest is also specially annotated with an XML comment of the following form:

<! — ForestRoot —>

From the standpoint of specifying domain name changes for the domain rename operation, the fields of most interest are those bounded by the <DNSname></DNSname> and <NetBiosName></NetBiosName> tags, as described in “STEP 4: Specify the New Forest Description” later in this document.

Troubleshooting Notes

The rendom tool contacts the domain controller that is the current domain naming master role owner in the target forest to gather the information necessary to generate the forest description file. The command could fail if the domain naming master is unavailable or unreachable from the control station.

STEP 4: Specify the New Forest Description

In this step, you will specify your new target forest structure overlaid on top of the forest description file (domainlist.xml) generated in “STEP 3: Generate the Current Forest Description” earlier in this document. The new forest description specified through changes to the domain (or application partition) names in the domainlist.xml file will form the starting point for the remainder of the steps in the domain rename operation.

Prerequisites

The current forest description must be available as the XML-encoded file domainlist.xml that can be modified.

Required Authorization Level

To perform this step, you must be a member of the Local Administrators group (or an authenticated user that has write access to the X:\DomainRename working directory) on the control station so that you can make changes to the forest description file domainlist.xml.

Actions

To perform this step, you will use a text editor to edit the domainlist.xml file to replace old domain names with new domain names. You must also edit the names of any application directory partitions that are in the domain hierarchy.


To edit the domainlist.xml file

  1. Using a simple text editor such as Notepad.exe, open the current forest description file domainlist.xml generated in “STEP 3: Generate the Current Forest Description” earlier in this document.
  2. Edit the forest description file, replacing the current DNS and/or NetBIOS names of the domains and application directory partitions to be renamed with the planned new DNS and/or NetBIOS names.

You can change either the DNS name (the field bounded by the <DNSname></DNSname> tags) or the NetBIOS name (the field bounded by the <NetBiosName></NetBiosName> tags), or both names, for any given domain in the forest. You cannot, however, change the GUID represented in the field bounded by the <Guid></Guid> tags.

Further, pay special attention to the fact that when the DNS name of a parent domain is changed, the DNS name of its child domain should also be changed unless you are deliberately restructuring the child domain into a new domain tree root in the forest. For example, in the forest represented by the forest description file in Figure 4, earlier in this document, if the root domain cohovineyard.com were to be renamed to cohowinery.com, then the child domain sales.cohovineyard.com should also be renamed to sales.cohowinery.com unless you want to make the domain sales.cohovineyard.com become the root of a new domain tree.

Figure 5 shows how the contents of the domainlist.xml file should appear before and after editing for domain name changes to rename the root domain from cohovineyard.com to cohowinery.com. This name change of the forest root domain also results in renaming the child domain from sales.cohovinehard.com to sales.cohowinery.com. Further, assume that the NetBIOS name of the root domain is also being changed from COHOVINEYARD to COHOWINERY.

Figure 5    Before and after versions of the forest description file for cohovineyard.com

BEFORE Editing (Root domain name: cohovineyard.com)

<Forest>

<Domain>


<!-— PartitionType:Application –>


<Guid>59add6bb-d0e8-499e-82b9-8aaca5d3e18b</Guid>

<DNSname>DomainDnsZones.sales.cohovineyard.com</DNSname>


<NetBiosName></NetBiosName>


<DcName></DcName>


</Domain>


<Domain>


<Guid>89cf8ae3-f4a3-453b-ac5c-cb05a76bfa40</Guid>


<DNSname>sales.cohovineyard.com</DNSname>


<NetBiosName>SALES</NetBiosName>


<DcName></DcName>


</Domain>


<Domain>


<! — – PartitionType:Application –>


<Guid> f018941b-c899-4601-bfa7-5c017e9d31e7</Guid>

<DNSname>ForestDnsZones.cohovineyard.com</DNSname>


<NetBiosName></NetBiosName>


<DcName></DcName>


</Domain>


<Domain>


<! — – PartitionType:Application –>


<Guid> f018941b-c899-4601-bfa7-5c017e9d31f3</Guid>


<DNSname>DomainDnsZones.cohovineyard.com</DNSname>


<NetBiosName></NetBiosName>


<DcName></DcName>


</Domain>


<Domain>

<! — – ForestRoot –>


<Guid>89cf6b34-d753-32a8-da6b-6a8e04bc48a4</Guid>


<DNSname>cohovineyard.com</DNSname>


<NetBiosName>COHOVINEYARD</NetBiosName>


<DcName></DcName>


</Domain>

</Forest>

AFTER Editing (Root domain name: cohowinery.com)

<Forest>


<Domain>


<!-— PartitionType:Application –>


<Guid>59add6bb-d0e8-499e-82b9-8aaca5d3e18b</Guid>

<DNSname>DomainDnsZones.sales.cohowinery.com</DNSname>


<NetBiosName></NetBiosName>


<DcName></DcName>


</Domain>


<Domain>


<Guid>89cf8ae3-f4a3-453b-ac5c-cb05a76bfa40</Guid>


<DNSname>sales.cohowinery.com</DNSname>

<NetBiosName>SALES</NetBiosName>


<DcName></DcName>


</Domain>


<Domain>


<! — – PartitionType:Application –>


<Guid> f018941b-c899-4601-bfa7-5c017e9d31e7</Guid>


<DNSname>ForestDnsZones.cohowinery.com</DNSname>


<NetBiosName></NetBiosName>


<DcName></DcName>


</Domain>


<Domain>


<! — – PartitionType:Application –>


<Guid> f018941b-c899-4601-bfa7-5c017e9d31f3</Guid>


<DNSname>DomainDnsZones.cohowinery.com</DNSname>


<NetBiosName></NetBiosName>


<DcName></DcName>


</Domain>


<Domain>


<! — – ForestRoot –>


<Guid>89cf6b34-d753-32a8-da6b-6a8e04bc48a4</Guid>


<DNSname>cohowinery.com</DNSname>


<NetBiosName>COHOWINERY</NetBiosName>


<DcName></DcName>


</Domain>

</Forest>


Note

It is not necessary that the NetBIOS name of a domain be changed when its DNS name changes.

Renaming Application Directory Partitions

In Figure 5, earlier in this document, notice that there are two DNSname entries that are not domains. These directory partitions are labeled “<!-— PartitionType:Application —>” and they store DNS zone data. By default, application directory partitions can be used to store DNS zone data and Microsoft Telephony API (TAPI) data in Active Directory. Other applications must be programmed to create and use application directory partitions in Active Directory.

Application directory partitions can exist anywhere in the domain hierarchy where a domain directory partition can, except for the forest root or tree root domain positions. However, when you rename a domain, an application directory partition that occurs below the renamed domain in the domain tree is not automatically renamed. You must take care to edit the names of application directory partitions if they occur below a renamed domain in the hierarchy.

DNS Data

If you have Active Directory-integrated DNS running on a domain controller, the DNS server might have created one or more application directory partitions to store data for DNS zones. There is one DNS-specific application directory partition dedicated for each domain (named DomainDnsZones.<domain DNS name>, where <domain DNS name> is the name of the domain), and another DNS-specific application directory partition dedicated for the entire forest (named ForestDnsZones.<forest DNS name>, where <forest DNS name> is the name of the forest root domain). When an Active Directory forest root domain or other domain is renamed, the corresponding DNS-specific application directory partition must be renamed. If the DNS-specific application directory partition is not renamed, then new DNS servers added to the network will not automatically load the DNS zones stored in the DNS-specific application directory partition and, hence, will not function correctly.

As can be seen from the contents of the example domainlist.xml file before and after editing shown earlier in Figure 5, the following three DNS-specific application directory partitions in the original forest

DomainDnsZones.sales.cohovineyard.com

DomainDnsZones.cohovineyard.com

ForestDnsZones.cohovineyard.com

are renamed to

DomainDnsZones.sales.cohowinery.com

DomainDnsZones.cohowinery.com

ForestDnsZones.cohowinery.com

in the new forest as a result of the domain name sales.cohovineyard.com being changed to sales.cohowinery.com, and the forest root domain name cohovineyard.com being changed to cohowinery.com, respectively.

TAPI Data

If you have a Microsoft TAPI dynamic directory for a domain hosted by Active Directory, then you may have created one or more application directory partitions (one for each domain) to store TAPI application data. There is one TAPI-specific application directory partition configured for each domain. When an Active Directory domain is renamed, the corresponding TAPI-specific application directory partition is not renamed automatically. It is recommended that you rename a TAPI-specific application directory partition when its corresponding domain name is changed.


To rename application directory partitions

  1. Examine the forest description file to determine if any application directory partitions in the forest need to be renamed as a result of the domain DNS name changes being specified.
  2. Consult the documentation for the application that created the application directory partition to see if the directory partition should be renamed. Any DNS name changes for application directory partitions must also be specified in the forest description file domainlist.xml along with the domain directory partition name changes.

Specifying the Source Domain Controllers

In “STEP 5: Generate Domain Rename Instructions” later in this document, the rendom tool will contact one arbitrarily chosen domain controller in each domain of the forest to gather information required for translating your new forest specification in the domainlist.xml file into a sequence of required directory changes encoded as a script to be executed at each DC. You can optionally specify a particular domain controller in each domain from which to pull the domain-specific information.


To specify domain controllers for each renamed domain in domainlist.xml

  • In the field bounded by the <DcName></DcName> tags within each domain entry, type the DNS host name of the domain controller you want to use. For example, to retrieve information for the domain sales.cohovineyard.com from the DC dc1.sales.cohovineyard.com, specify <DcName>dc1.sales.cohovineyard.com</DcName> within the domain entry for the renamed domain sales.cohowinery.com. (Recall that domain controller names do not change when the domain is renamed.)

Reviewing the New Forest Description

Review and verify that the domain name changes you have specified in the forest description file domainlist.xml yield the desired new forest structure that you wish. You can use rendom to display the new forest structure specified by you in the domainlist.xml file in a user-friendly format using text indentation to reflect the domain hierarchy


To review the new forest description in domainlist.xml

  • At the command prompt, type the following and then press ENTER:

    rendom /showforest

This command simply displays the contents of the domainlist.xml file in a format that is easier to read and in which you can better see the forest structure. Use this command each time after making any changes to the domainlist.xml file to verify that the forest structure looks as intended. It is essential at this step to specify an accurate forest description that reflects the desired changes to the forest structure because any error at this stage will result in an unintended forest structure when the domain rename operation is complete. If your target structure is not what you intended, you must perform the entire domain rename procedure again.

Troubleshooting Notes

To gather the information necessary to process the /showforest.command-line option, Rendom contacts the domain controller that is the current domain naming master in the target forest. The command could fail if the domain naming master is unavailable or unreachable from the control station.

The changes made to the forest description file domainlist.xml must produce a forest structure that conforms to the constraints discussed in “When to Use Domain Rename” in the document titled “How Domain Rename Works.” Any inconsistent or unsupported change to the forest description will be flagged as an error by the domain rename tool at STEP 5 without proceeding any further.

STEP 5: Generate Domain Rename Instructions

In this step, you will use Rendom to generate the domain rename instructions required to make your new target forest structure effective. Rendom translates the new forest structure expressed in the edited forest description file you prepared in “STEP 4: Specify the New Forest Description,” earlier in this document, into a sequence of directory update instructions that will be executed individually and remotely on each DC in the forest. The resultant domain rename instructions, encoded in a special script format, are uploaded to the configuration partition on the domain naming master. For information about the exact directory changes that occur on the domain naming master, see the document titled “How Domain Rename Works.”

Prerequisites

The new forest description must be available as the XML-encoded file domainlist.xml, which is obtained by editing the original forest description file in STEP 4.

Required Authorization Level

To perform this step, you must be a member of the following groups:

  • Enterprise Admins group in the target forest (you must have write access to the Partitions container object and the cross-reference objects that are its children in the configuration directory partition).
  • Local Administrators group on the control station (or an authenticated user that has write access to the X:\DomainRename working directory).


Note

You can use credentials other than those with which you are currently logged on. To use alternate credentials, use the /user and /pwd command-line switches of rendom, as described in “Command Line Syntax for the Rendom Tool” in the Appendix A of this document.

Actions

To perform this step, you will use Rendom from a command prompt.


To generate the domain rename instructions and upload them to the domain naming master

  1. On the control station, open a command prompt.
  2. From within the X:\DomainRename directory, execute the following command:

    rendom /upload

  3. Verify that the domain rename tool created the state file dclist.xml in the directory X:\DomainRename and that the state file contains an entry for every domain controller in your forest.

The rendom /upload command generates the domain rename instructions and uploads them to Active Directory. It also generates a state file called dclist.xml (the default name) and writes it to the current directory X:\DomainRename. Rendom uses the state file to track the progress and state of each domain controller in the forest through the remaining steps of the domain rename procedure.

Figure 6 shows the format of the dclist.xml file that is generated for the two-domain forest illustrated in STEP 4. In the example, there are two domain controllers named DC1 and DC2 in the cohovineyard.com domain, and two domain controllers named DC3 and DC4 in the sales.cohovineyard.com domain.

Figure 6    State file (dclist.xml) for tracking domain rename

<?xml version = “1.0”?>

<DcList>


<Hash>zzzzzzzz</Hash>


<Signature>zzzzzzzz</Signature>

<DC>


<Name>DC1.cohovineyard.com</Name>


<State>Initial</State>


<LastError>0</LastError>


<Password />


<LastErrorMsg />


<FatalErrorMsg />


<Retry></Retry>


</DC>

<DC>


<Name>DC2.cohovineyard.com</Name>


<State>Initial</State>


<LastError>0</LastError>


<Password />


<LastErrorMsg />


<FatalErrorMsg />


<Retry></Retry>


</DC>

<DC>


<Name>DC3.sales.cohovineyard.com</Name>


<State>Initial</State>


<LastError>0</LastError>


<Password />


<LastErrorMsg />


<FatalErrorMsg />


<Retry></Retry>


</DC>

<DC>


<Name>DC4.sales.cohovineyard.com</Name>


<State>Initial</State>


<LastError>0</LastError>


<Password />


<LastErrorMsg />


<FatalErrorMsg />


<Retry></Retry>


</DC>

</DcList>

In Figure 6 above, notice that there is an entry for every domain controller in the forest in the dclist.xml state file, and the state of each DC entry (the field bounded by the <State></State> tags) is initialized to the Initial state at this step. This state will change independently for each DC as it progresses through the rest of the domain rename procedure.

Troubleshooting Notes

  • Forest description must be consistent with rules and changes must be supported. The new forest structure specified in the forest description file domainlist.xml must produce a forest structure that conforms to the constraints discussed in “When to Use Domain Rename” in the document titled “How Domain Rename Works.” Any inconsistent or unsupported change to the forest description will be flagged as an error by Rendom.
  • Source domain controller must be available and reachable. Rendom contacts one arbitrarily chosen domain controller in each domain (or the DC designated for each domain in the <DCname></DCname> field in the domainlist.xml file) to gather the information necessary to generate the domain rename instructions. The command could fail if a designated DC in a domain is unavailable or unreachable from the control station (or, if a designated DC was not specified, if no DC in a domain is reachable from the control station).
  • Domain naming master must be available and reachable. Rendom writes the domain rename instructions to the Partitions container in the Configuration directory partition on the domain naming master, and gathers the information necessary to generate the state file dclist.xml. The command could fail if the domain naming master is unavailable or unreachable from the control station.
  • Forest must be quiescent. The forest must remain quiescent with regards to the specific changes included in the list of activities provided in “Activities to Discontinue Prior to Domain Rename” earlier in this document. In accordance with these instructions, there must be no changes made to Active Directory to add or remove domains, domain controllers, trust relationships, and global catalog attributes in the interim time between the beginning of STEP 5 through the end of STEP 9. If any changes are made in these areas, they will either be refused by the directory service or detected by the domain rename tool and flagged as errors in subsequent steps.

STEP 6: Push Domain Rename Instructions to All DCs and Verify DNS Readiness

In this step, you will force Active Directory replication to push the domain rename instructions that were uploaded to the domain naming master in STEP 5 to all domain controllers in the forest. In addition, you will verify that the DC Locator records registered in DNS by each DC for the new domain names have replicated to all DNS servers that are authoritative for those records.

Prerequisites

  • The domain rename instructions for the new forest description must be written to the msDSUpdateScript attribute on the Partitions container object in the configuration directory partition on the domain naming master for the forest.
  • The Support Tool repadmin.exe must be installed on the control station.
  • The Active Directory administration tool dsquery.exe must be installed on the control station.

Required Authorization Level

To perform this step, you must be a member of the Enterprise Admins group in the target forest.


Note

You can use credentials other than those with which you are currently logged on. To use alternate credentials, use the /user and /pwd command-line switches of rendom, as described in “Command Line Syntax for the Rendom Tool” in the Appendix A of this document.

Actions

In this step, you can use Repadmin to force Active Directory replication of directory changes on the domain naming master to all domain controllers in the forest. After replication has taken place, you must check DNS for the presence of resource records that are required for DC location and for Active Directory replication.


Note

Forcing replication is not required, but serves to accelerate the replication of the changes to the Partitions container in the configuration directory partition to all DCs in the forest. You can optionally wait for replication to complete according to the usual replication intervals and delays characteristic of your forest.

If you do not know the name of the domain naming master, you can use the Dsquery tool to discover it. Then use the DNS monitoring tool to check that the correct SRV resource records that are used by DC Locator have been registered in DNS.


To discover the DNS host name of the domain naming master

  1. On the control station, open a command prompt.
  2. At the command prompt, type the following and then press ENTER:

    Dsquery server –hasfsmo name

The following procedure forces the Active Directory changes initiated at the Domain Naming master DC in STEP 4 to replicate to all DCs in the forest.


To force synchronization of changes made to the domain naming master

  1. On the control station, open a command prompt.
  2. At the command prompt, type the following and then press ENTER:

    repadmin /syncall /d /e /P /q DomainNamingMaster

    where DomainNamingMaster is the DNS host name of the domain controller that is the current domain naming master for the forest.


Note

The Repadmin command-line options are case-sensitive.

If the repadmin command in the above procedure completes successfully, then the changes originating at the domain naming master DC will have replicated to every DC in the forest. If the command reports an error for some subset of the DCs in the forest, then the replication must be reattempted for those failed DCs until all DCs in the forest have successfully received the changes from the domain naming master.


To check for presence of required DNS resource records

  • Use the DNS MMC snap-in to check for the presence of the records listed in Table 1, below.

During domain rename, the SRV resource records associated with the new domain name that are used by the DC Locator are pre-published in the authoritative DNS servers by the Net Logon service running on the domain controllers of the domain. For DC location to be functional after domain rename, there are a subset of records whose presence at the authoritative DNS servers is critical for authentication and replication to take place.

In Table 1, the resource records are listed in order of importance.


WARNING

The word “must” in the context in Table 1 means do not, under any circumstances, proceed with domain rename unless this requirement is fulfilled.

Table 1    SRV Resource Records Required for DC Location

Type

Name of Owner

Explanation

CNAME DsaGuid._msdcs.DnsForestName There must be one CNAME record associated with every domain controller in all authoritative DNS servers. This record ensures that replication will take place from that DC.
SRV _ldap._tcp.pdc._msdcs.DnsDomainName There must be one SRV record pertaining to the PDC on all authoritative DNS servers. This record ensures the functioning of authentication of users and computers.
SRV _ldap._tcp.gc._msdcs.DnsForestName There must be at least one record pertaining to at least one global catalog (GC) server on all authoritative DNS servers. This record ensures the functioning of authentication of users and computers. For example, one DNS server might contain a record of this type registered by one GC, while other DNS servers might contain the records of this type registered by other GCs.It is sufficient, temporarily, if there is at least one record of this type present on all authoritative DNS servers. The other records will eventually replicate to all authoritative DNS servers.
SRV _ldap._tcp.dc._msdcs.DnsDomainName There must be at least one record pertaining to at least one DC on all authoritative DNS servers. This record ensures the functioning of authentication of users and computers. For example, one DNS server might contain a record of this type registered by one DC, while other DNS servers might contain the records of this type registered by other DCs.It is sufficient, temporarily, if there is at least one record of this type present on all authoritative DNS servers. The other records will eventually replicate to all authoritative DNS servers.

The following two resource records are also required for authentication:

  • KDC: An SRV resource record owned by _kerberos._tcp.dc._msdcs.DnsDomainName.
  • GcIpAddress: An A resource record owned by _gc._msdcs.DnsForestName.

However, because these resource records are closely linked with the GC and the DC SRV resource records described in Table 1 above, it is sufficient to confirm the presence of the GC and the DC SRV records to make the assumption that these two records have also been pre-published.

Troubleshooting Notes

If the changes written directly to Active Directory in STEP 5 (msDS-UpdateScript and msDSDnsRootAlias attributes) or the changes in Active Directory that result as a side-effect of the directly written changes (servicePrincipalName attribute of domain controller accounts) have not replicated to all the required domain controllers, Rendom will report error in STEP 7 and will be unable to proceed further. For information about the details of the changes that occur in Active Directory as a result of STEP 5 and where these changes must replicate, see “Actions Performed by Rendom in Response to the /upload Command” in the document titled “Understanding How Domain Rename Works.” The required changes should ultimately replicate to all the domain controllers in due time and subsequent steps in the domain rename procedure should be possible.

STEP 7: Verify Readiness of Domain Controllers

In this step, you will run a preparatory check on every domain controller in the forest to verify that the directory database at each DC in the forest is in good state and ready to perform the directory modifications dictated by the domain rename instructions. You perform the verification by using the Rendom tool to issue a Remote Procedure Call (RPC) individually to each DC in the forest.

Prerequisites

  • The originating changes made to the Partitions container in Active Directory in STEP 5 (writes to the attributes msDS-UpdateScript and msDSDnsRootAlias) must have replicated to every DC in the forest. This status is checked for and enforced by Rendom at this step.
  • The changes to Active Directory that resulted as a side effect of the originating changes to the Partitions container in STEP 5 (updated servicePrincipalName attribute for domain controller computer accounts) must have replicated to every DC in a domain and the global catalog servers. During this step, Rendom checks for and enforces these changes.
  • SRV resource records required for DC location of the renamed domains must be registered in DNS and must have replicated to all DNS servers.

Required Authorization Level

To perform this step, you must be a member of the following groups:

  • Enterprise Admins group in the target forest (you must have write access to the Partitions container object and the cross-reference objects that are its children in the configuration directory partition).
  • Local Administrators group on the control station (or an authenticated user that has write access to the X:\DomainRename working directory) to update the state file dclist.xml.


Note

You can use credentials other than those with which you are currently logged on. To use alternate credentials, use the /user and /pwd command-line switches of rendom, as described in “Command Line Syntax for the Rendom Tool” in the Appendix A of this document.

Actions

In this step, you will use Rendom from a command prompt.


To verify the readiness of domain controllers in the forest

  1. On the control station, open a command prompt and change to the X:\DomainRename directory
  2. At the command prompt, type the following command and then press ENTER:

    rendom /prepare

  3. Once the command has finished execution, examine the state file dclist.xml to determine whether all domain controllers have achieved the Prepared state. If not, repeat step 2 in this procedure until all DCs show the Prepared state.


Note

Each such execution of the Rendom tool will consult the dclist.xml state file and skip connecting to and verifying those domain controllers that are already in the Prepared state. Thus, no redundant operations are performed by repeatedly reattempting the above command.

The rendom /prepare command causes the control station computer to issue an RPC to every DC in the forest tracked by the state file dclist.xml. The RPC causes each DC to verify that its directory replica is in a good state to perform the changes dictated by the domain rename instructions. For each DC that is successfully verified for readiness, Rendom updates the state field in the corresponding domain controller entry in the state file dclist.xml to Prepared (<State>Prepared</State>).


Important

All DCs must be in the Prepared state before you can proceed to STEP 8.

Troubleshooting Notes

  • Domain controllers might be unreachable. In a large forest with a large number of domain controllers, it is very likely that all DCs will not be reachable from the control station at the same time. In other words, it is unlikely that all DCs tracked by the state file dclist.xml will reach the Prepared state in a single execution of the rendom /prepare command. Therefore, multiple invocations of the above command might be necessary to make incremental progress with groups of domain controllers reaching the Prepared state at a time. If you determine that for any reason it is impossible to make any further progress with a specific DC, then the entry for that DC (bounded by the <DC></DC> tags) can be removed from the dclist.xml file by simply editing the state file with a text editor like Notepad before continuing on to STEP 8. Remember that when a DC is removed in this manner from participating in the domain rename procedure, it must be retired (Active Directory must be removed from domain controller) in the new forest after the domain rename operation is completed.


Important

Make sure that you save a copy of the state file dclist.xml every time before editing it by hand using a text editor. This would allow an easy fallback and recovery in case you make an error in editing the file.

  • Forest must be quiescent. The forest must remain quiescent with regards to the specific changes included in the list of activities provided in “Activities to Discontinue Prior to Domain Rename” earlier in this document. In accordance with these instructions, there must be no changes made to Active Directory to add or remove domains, application directory partitions, domain controllers, or trust relationships in the interim time between the beginning of STEP 5 through the end of STEP 9. If any changes are made in these areas, it will be detected by Rendom and flagged as an error in this step. If such an error is reported, you must run rendom /end on the control station and start over again from STEP 3.
  • Command execution log on the control station. As Rendom executes the various command line options, the command execution log is cumulatively captured in a log file named rendom.log (the default name) in the current working directory X:\DomainRename. When execution of a Rendom command fails, examination of this log file can yield valuable information about the actual tasks performed by the tool, and at what stage or on which domain controller a problem occurred.

STEP 8: Execute Domain Rename Instructions

In this step, you will execute the domain rename instructions contained in the special script uploaded to the msDS-UpdateScript attribute on the Partitions container on every domain controller in the forest. To execute the script, the control station computer issues an RPC to each DC in the forest individually, which causes each DC to execute the domain rename instructions and then reboot automatically after having executed the instructions successfully. At the end of this step, every domain controller tracked by the state file dclist.xml will be in one of two final states

  • Done, meaning that the DC has successfully completed the domain rename operation.
  • Error, meaning that the DC has encountered an irrecoverable error and can never complete the domain rename operation.


WARNING

This step will cause a temporary disruption in service while the domain controllers are executing the domain rename instructions and rebooting after successful execution. The Active Directory service in the forest has not been disrupted up to this point in the domain rename procedure.

Prerequisites

All domain controllers in the forest must be in the Prepared state, as indicated by the state field (<State>Prepared</State>) in the state file dclist.xml. This state is checked for and enforced by Rendom at this step.

Required Authorization Level

To perform this step, you must be a member of the following groups:

  • Enterprise Admins group in the target forest.
  • Local Administrators group on the control station (or an authenticated user that has write access to the X:\DomainRename working directory) to update the state file dclist.xml.


Note

You can use credentials other than those with which you are currently logged on. To use alternate credentials, use the /user and /pwd command-line switches of rendom, as described in “Command Line Syntax for the Rendom Tool” in the Appendix of this document.

Actions

In this step, you will use Rendom from a command prompt and then examine the state file dclist.xml for the status of each DC. The Rendom command must be repeated until all DCs have either successfully executed the domain rename, or you have established that one or more DCs are unreachable and will be removed from the forest.


To execute the domain rename instructions on all domain controllers

  1. On the control station, open a command prompt.
  2. At the command prompt, type the following and then press ENTER:

    rendom /execute

  3. When the command has finished execution, examine the state file dclist.xml to determine whether all domain controllers have reached either the Done state or the Error state.
  4. If the dclist.xml file shows any DCs as remaining in the Prepared state, repeat step 2 in this procedure as many times as needed until the stopping criterion is met.


Important

The stopping criterion for the domain rename procedure is that every DC in the forest has reached one of the two final states of Done or Error in the dclist.xml state file.

The rendom /execute command causes the control station computer to issue an RPC to every DC in the forest that is tracked by the state file dclist.xml and request execution of the changes dictated by the domain rename instructions. Each DC that successfully executes the domain rename instructions will reboot automatically. For each such DC, the corresponding state field for the domain controller entry in the state file will be updated to read <State>Done</State>. If, on the other hand, a fatal or irrecoverable error is encountered on a DC while attempting to execute the domain rename instructions, the corresponding state for the domain controller entry in the state file will be updated to read <State>Error</State>. For the Error state, the error code is written to the last error field <LastError></LastError> and a corresponding error message is written to the <FatalErrorMsg></FatalErrorMsg> field.


Note

Each execution of the Rendom /execute command will consult the dclist.xml state file and skip connecting to those domain controllers that are already in the Done or Error state. Thus, no redundant operations are performed by repeatedly reattempting this command.

If you determine that an error that has caused a DC to reach the Error state in the dclist.xml file is actually a recoverable error and you feel that forward progress can be made on that DC by retrying the execution of the domain rename instructions, you can force the rendom /execute command to retry issuing the RPC to that DC (instead of skipping it) as described below.


To force Rendom /execute to re-issue the RPC to a DC in the Error state

  1. In the dclist.xml file, locate the <Retry></Retry> field in the domain controller entry for the DC that you believe should be retried.
  2. Edit the dclist.xml file such that the field reads <Retry>yes</Retry> for that entry.

The next execution of the rendom /execute command will re-issue the execute-specific RPC to that DC.

When all the domain controllers are in either the Done or Error state (there should be no DC in the Prepared state), declaring this step to be complete is at your discretion. You can continue to retry execution attempts on DCs that are in the Error state if you feel that it will eventually succeed. However, when you declare that this execution step is complete and you will not re-try the rendom /execute command, then you must take steps to remove Active Directory (run Configure Your Server) from all DCs that are still in the Error state.


Important

The DNS host names of the domain controllers in the renamed domains do not change automatically as a result of the domain rename operation. In other words, the DNS suffix in the fully qualified DNS host name of a DC in the renamed domain will continue to reflect the old domain name. A special DC rename procedure, executed as a separate post-domain-rename task, can be used to change the DNS host name of a DC so that it conforms with the DNS name of the domain to which it is joined. For information about renaming domain controllers, see Windows Server 2003 Server Help and Support Center.

Troubleshooting Notes

  • Domain controllers might be unreachable. In a large forest with a large number of domain controllers, it is very unlikely that all DCs will be reachable from the control station at the same time. In other words, it is unlikely that all DCs tracked by the state file dclist.xml will be issued the RPC to execute the domain rename instructions successfully in a single execution of the rendom /execute command and that all DCs tracked by the state file dclist.xml will reach the Done or Error state in a single execution of the command. Therefore, multiple invocations of the rendom /execute command might be necessary to make incremental progress, with groups of domain controllers reaching one of the final states at a time.
  • Forest must be quiescent. The forest must remain quiescent with regards to the specific changes included in the list of activities provided “Activities to Discontinue Prior to Domain Rename” earlier in this document. In accordance with these instructions, there must be no changes made to Active Directory to add or remove domains, application directory partitions, domain controllers, or trust relationships in the interim time between the beginning of STEP 5 through the end of STEP 9. If any changes are made in these areas, it will be detected by Rendom and flagged as an error in this step.
  • Command execution log on the control station. As Rendom executes the various command line options, the command execution log is cumulatively captured in a log file named rendom.log (the default name) in the current working directory X:\DomainRename. When execution of a Rendom command fails, examination of this log file can yield valuable information about the actual tasks performed by the tool, and at what stage or on which domain controller a problem occurred.
  • Script execution log on the domain controller. If you get an error reported from any of the DCs at this step in response to the RPC issued to the DC by the Rendom tool, save the domain rename script execution log file at the following file system location on the DC reporting the error:

    %SystemRoot%\debug\scriptlog.log

    If you need to contact Microsoft Product Support, provide this script execution log file to your product support contact to help Microsoft Product Support personnel diagnose your problem.

Exchange-Specific Steps: Update the Exchange Configuration and Restart Exchange Servers

If the domain contains Exchange 2003 SP1 servers, before you continue with Step 9, run the Exchange Domain Rename Fix-up Tool (XDR-fixup). Then reboot all Exchange servers twice. For detailed steps, see the “Exchange Domain Rename Fix-up Tool” document available for download with the tool at http://www.microsoft.com/exchange/updates.

STEP 9: Unfreeze the Forest Configuration

After the completion of STEP 5, the forest configuration was frozen with respect to certain types of changes. In this frozen configuration, addition/removal of domains, addition/removal of DCs and addition/removal of trusts were not allowed within the forest. In this step, you will use Rendom to unfreeze the forest such that changes that were not allowed can once again be made.

Prerequisites

All procedures in “STEP 8: Execute Domain Rename Instructions,” including the automatic DC reboot, must have been completed on all domain controllers in the renamed domains.

Required Authorization Level

To perform this step, you must be a member of the Enterprise Admins group in the target forest (you must have write access to the Partitions container object).


Note

You can use credentials other than those with which you are currently logged on. To use alternate credentials, use the /user and /pwd command-line switches of rendom, as described in “Command Line Syntax for the Rendom Tool” in the Appendix A of this document.

Actions

In this step, after restarting the control station twice, you will use the Rendom tool from a command prompt.


To ensure that all services on the control station learn the new domain name

  • Reboot the control station twice to ensure that all services running on it learn of the new name (DNS name and/or NetBIOS name) of the domain of which the control station is a member. Do not restart the control station by turning its power off and then back on.


To unfreeze the forest configuration

  • From within the X:\DomainRename directory, execute the following command:

    rendom /end

The rendom /end command connects to the DC holding the domain naming master role and removes the attribute msDS-UpdateScript on the Partitions container.

Troubleshooting Notes

None.

STEP 10: Re-establish External Trusts

All intraforest shortcut trusts within the forest in which the domain rename occurred are automatically adjusted during the domain rename operation so that they continue to work. However, as a result of the domain name changes in your forest, any external trust relationships that your forest has with other forests (including cross-forest trusts) will be rendered invalid and hence need to be re-established.

Prerequisites

All procedures in “STEP 9: Unfreeze the Forest Configuration” must have been completed.

Required Authorization Level

To perform this step, you must be a member of the Domain Admins group in the target domain in which the external trust is being re-established. You must have the ability to delete and create external trusts.

Actions

In this step, all external trusts from/to the forest in which the domain rename operation occurred must be deleted and recreated. In particular, when a domain in your forest is renamed, the following trust relationships become invalid:

  • Any inter-forest trust relationship established at the forest root level (cross-forest trust).
  • Any external trust relationship with a domain in another forest.

You must use the Active Directory Domains and Trusts MMC snap-in or the Netdom.exe tool to delete and recreate all such trust relationships.

Troubleshooting Notes

None.

STEP 11: Fix Distributed File System (Dfs) Topology

In this step, you will use the dfsutil.exe command-line tool to repair references to a renamed domain in the Dfs topology data in each renamed domain. It is necessary to repair the Dfs topology after a domain rename operation to update the old domain name embedded in the Dfs topology metadata that includes the root name, root replica server names and link target server names. The tool scans the entire topology for a given Dfs root including the root name, root replica servers and link target servers, and fixes any occurrences of the “old name” with the “new name” as specified on the command line. It also connects to any affected Dfs root replica server and changes the topology information held in its local registry. The Dfs utility needs to be run as many times as necessary in each renamed domain to fix the topology for every Dfs root.

Prerequisites

  • All procedures in “STEP 8: Execute Domain Rename Instructions,” including the automatic DC reboot, must have been completed on all domain controllers in the renamed domains.
  • The control station must have been rebooted twice at “STEP 9: Unfreeze the Forest Configuration.”


Important

In order to be able to rename a domain, all DFS root servers in that domain for domain-based or standalone DFS must be running Windows 2000 with Service Pack 3 or a higher release of the Windows server.

Required Authorization Level

To perform this step, you must be a member of the Domain Admins group in the target domain in which the Dfs fix-up is to occur. The access check performed at this step requires that you have write access to the Dfs topology information published in the domain directory partition (in the case of a domain-based Dfs) and/or in the registry of the Dfs root replica server (in the case of stand-alone Dfs).

Actions

In this step, you will perform a series of commands at the command prompt for each domain that is renamed.


To fix up Dfs topology in every renamed domain

  1. For a renamed domain examine the DFS topology using the Dfs MMC snap-in or the dfsutil.exe utility. Prepare a list of Dfs roots for which any topology component–Dfs root path, Dfs root replica server name or a Dfs link target server name–needs to be fixed as a result of renaming the domain. Following is a description of when each topology component needs to be fixed up following the rename operation.


Note

The dfsutil.exe utility can only be used to repair the DFS topology information for domain-based DFS roots, not standalone DFS roots.

  1. The Dfs root path would need to be changed in the topology for a domain-based Dfs root when the domain name changes. For example, if the name of the domain cohovineyard.com changed to cohowinery.com, then a domain-based Dfs root named \\cohovineyard.com\public would need to be changed to \\cohowinery.com\public. Note that if the root path represented in the Dfs topology uses the NetBIOS name of the domain, and the NetBIOS name of the domain was not changed by the rename operation, then it does not need to be fixed up.
  2. A Dfs root replica server name, if specified as a fully-qualified DNS name in the Dfs topology, would need to be changed if its DNS host name changes as a result of renaming the domain. For example, the DNS host name of a Dfs replica server named srv1.cohovineyard.com may change to srv1.cohowinery.com as a result of the domain name change shown in the example above. Note that if the replica server name represented in the Dfs topology uses the NetBIOS name of the server, which does not change due to the rename operation, then it does not need to be fixed up.
  3. A Dfs link target server name, if specified as a fully-qualified DNS name in the shared folder path in the Dfs topology, would need to be changed if its DNS host name changes as a result of renaming the domain. For example, the shared folder path for a Dfs link in the topology may need to be changed from \\fs2.cohovineyard.com\memos to the path \\fs2.cohowinery.com\memos if the DNS host name of the file server changes as a result of the domain name change shown in the example above. Note that if the link target server name represented in the Dfs topology uses the NetBIOS name of the server, which does not change due to the rename operation, then it does not need to be fixed up.
  4. On the control station, open a command prompt. For each Dfs root, if any of the topology components as described above needs to be fixed, type the following command (the entire command must be typed on a single line, although it is shown on multiple lines for clarity) and press ENTER:

    dfsutil /RenameFtRoot /Root:DfsRootPath

    /OldDomain:OldName

    /NewDomain:NewName

    /Verbose

    -Where-

    DfsRootPath is the DFS root to operate on, e.g., \\cohovineyard.com\public.

    OldName is the exact old name to be replaced in the topology for the Dfs root.

    NewName is the exact new name to replace the old name in the topology.

  5. Examine the fixed Dfs topology again and confirm that it accurately reflects the topology in the renamed domain.
  6. Reboot every Dfs root replica server twice to cause the Dfs service on it to refresh its topology information.
  7. Repeat steps 1 through 7 in this procedure for every renamed domain. You can enter the commands in sequence for each renamed domain.

Troubleshooting Notes

None.

STEP 12: Fix Group Policy Objects and Links

In this step, you will use the gpfixup.exe command-line tool to repair Group Policy objects (GPOs) as well as GPO references in each renamed domain. It is necessary to repair the GPOs and the Group Policy links after a domain rename operation to update the old domain name embedded in these GPOs and their links. This procedure is necessary so that Group Policy continues to function normally in the new forest after the domain rename operation has completed. The tool also repairs any Group Policy-based Software Installation and Maintenance data (such as Software Distribution Point network paths), if present in Active Directory, so that managed software deployment continues to work in your environment. The GPO and link fix-up tool needs to be run once in each renamed domain. There is no GPO and link fix-up required corresponding to renamed application directory partitions because you cannot apply Group Policy to an application directory partition.


Important

The GPO/link fix-up procedure executed in this step does not fix any interdomain GPO links that might exist in your forest. Any existing interdomain GPO links will have to be manually broken and reconfigured for them to work properly. This fix-up procedure also does not repair network paths for Software Distribution Points (present in Active Directory) that are external to the domain.

Prerequisites

  • All procedures in “STEP 8: Execute Domain Rename Instructions,” including the automatic DC reboot, must have been completed on all domain controllers in the renamed domains.
  • The domain controller with the primary domain controller emulator role in a renamed domain must have successfully completed the domain rename operation and reached the final Done state in STEP 8 before this step is executed for that domain.
  • The control station must have been rebooted twice at “STEP 9: Unfreeze the Forest Configuration.”
  • All procedures in “STEP 11: Fix Distributed File System (Dfs) Topology” for a renamed domain must have been completed before this step is executed for that domain.
  • All member servers in the domain that host Software Distribution Points (network locations from which users deploy managed software in your environment) must have been rebooted twice following “STEP 8: Execute Domain Rename Instructions.” This prerequisite step is extremely important and necessary for the Software Installation and Maintenance data fix-up to work correctly.

Required Authorization Level

To perform this step, you must be a member of the Enterprise Admins group in the target forest. The access check performed at this step requires that you have write access to the gpLink attribute on the site, domain, and organizational unit objects as well as write access to the GPOs themselves.


Note

You can use credentials other than those with which you are currently logged on. To use alternate credentials, use the /user and /pwd command-line switches of rendom, as described in “Command Line Syntax for the Rendom Tool” in the Appendix A of this document.

Actions

In this step, you will perform a series of commands at the command prompt for each domain that is renamed.


To fix up Group Policy in every renamed domain

  1. On the control station, open a command prompt and change to the X:\DomainRename directory.
  2. At the command prompt, type the following command (the entire command must be typed on a single line, although it is shown on multiple lines for clarity) and press ENTER:

    gpfixup /olddns:OldDomainDnsName

    /newdns:NewDomainDNSName

    /oldnb:OldDomainNetBIOSName

    /newnb:NewDomainNetBIOSName

    /dc:DcDnsName 2>&1 >gpfixup.log

    -Where-

    OldDomainDnsName is the old DNS name of the renamed domain.

    NewDomainDnsName is the new DNS name of the renamed domain.

    OldDomainNetBIOSName is the old NetBIOS name of the renamed domain.

    NewDomainNetBIOSName is the new NetBIOS name of the renamed domain.

    DcDnsName is the DNS host name of a domain controller in the renamed domain, preferably the PDC emulator, that successfully completed the rename operation with a final Done state in the dclist.xml state file in “STEP 8: Execute Domain Rename Instructions” earlier in this document.


Note

The command line parameters /oldnb and /newnb are only required if the NetBIOS name of the domain changed; otherwise, these parameters can be omitted from the command line for Gpfixup.

  1. The output of the command execution – both status and/or error output – is saved to the file gpfixup.log which can be periodically displayed to monitor progress of the command.
  2. To force replication of the Group Policy fix-up changes made at the DC named in DcDNSName in step 2 of this procedure to the rest of the DCs in the renamed domain, type the following and then press ENTER:

    repadmin /syncall /d /e /P /q DcDnsName
    NewDomainDN

    -Where-

    DcDnsName is the DNS host name of the DC that was targeted by the gpfixup command.

    NewDomainDN is the distinguished name (DN) corresponding to the new DNS name of the renamed domain.

  3. Repeat steps 2 and 3 in this procedure for every renamed domain. You can enter the commands in sequence for each renamed domain.

    For example, using the sample forest and domain name changes used in “STEP 4: Specify the New Forest Description” earlier in this document, the process would require running the gpfixup command twice — once for the renamed cohovineyard.com domain and once for the sales.cohovineyard.com domain, as shown below:

    gpfixup /olddns:cohovineyard.com /newdns:cohowinery.com

    /oldnb:cohovineyard /newnb:cohowinery

    /dc:dc1.cohovineyard.com 2>&1 >gpfixup1.log

    repadmin /syncall /d /e /P /q dc1.cohovineyard.com dc=cohowinery,dc=com

    gpfixup /olddns:sales.cohovineyard.com /newdns:sales.cohowinery.com

    /dc:dc3.sales.cohovineyard.com 2>&1 >gpfixup2.log

    repadmin /syncall /d /e /P /q dc3.sales.cohovineyard.com

    dc=sales,dc=cohowinery,dc=com


Important

The gpfixup command should only be run once for each renamed domain, and not for renamed application directory partitions.

Notice that the DNS host names for the DCs in the renamed domains used in the command invocations above still reflect the old domain DNS name. As mentioned earlier, the DNS host name of a domain controller in a renamed domain does not change automatically as a result of the domain name change.

Troubleshooting Notes

Because the GPO and link fix-up procedure executed in this step does not fix any inter-domain GPO links that might exist in your forest, Group Policies that are applied as a result of such inter-domain GPO links will not work after the domain rename operation. Any existing inter-domain GPO links will have to be manually broken and reconfigured in the new forest.


Tip

As a best practice, do not use GPO links that cross domain boundaries.

After the Domain Rename Procedure

After you have completed the domain rename process, follow the instructions in this section to be sure that all functionality that relies on the accurate domain name has been addressed with any needed related tasks.

Verify Certificate Security After Domain Rename

If you use enterprise certificates, perform all of the following procedures after domain rename is complete.

Preparing URLs for CDP and AIA Extensions after Domain Rename

To ensure that the old certificates function properly following domain rename, make a CNAME record DNS entry that redirects the old HTTP server (servicing the CRL of the CA) name query to the new DNS name for the server. This redirection will allow the HTTP URLs in the old certificates to be valid and hence the client machine is able to obtain CRLs and CA certificate for verification. Note: you can remove the CNAME record once you are assured that the existing certificates have been renewed.

Note: If you only have LDAP URLs in the certificates then all the previously issued certificates will no longer be validiated. Only workaround for correcting the LDAP CDP / AIA pointers is to renew the entire CA hierarchy and reissue the End Entity certificates – expect PKI downtime until these issues are resolved.


To configure the redirecting alias DNS entry

  1. In the DNS MMC snap-in, expand the DNS server node to expose the old DNS zone.
  2. Right-click the old DNS zone.
  3. Click New Alias (CNAME ).
  4. In the Alias name box, type the original fully qualified domain name (FQDN) of the HTTP Server..
  5. In the Fully qualified domain name for target host box, type the new FQDN of the HTTP Server, and then click OK.

At this point you can test the redirection by pinging the FQDN of the old HTTP server. The ping should be remapped to the new FQDN of the HTTP server.

Verifying the Use of User Principal Names (UPNs)

Authentication protocols like Kerberos (Smart Card Logon) require the UPN in the user certificate to match the UPN in the user account (implicit or explicit) in Active Directory. You need to be aware of the differences in behavior between implicit and explicit UPNs.

Implicit UPN: If a user account in Active Directory does not have an explicitly assigned value for its UPN attribute, it is assumed to have an implicit UPN for authentication purposes based on the DNS name of the domain in which the account exists. When the DNS name of a domain changes as a result of the domain rename operation the implicit UPNs of all user accounts in the domain also change. Both the old and the new implicit UPN forms will be accepted for authentication until the cleanup step (see “Attribute Clean-up After Domain Rename” later in this document) has been completed. After that step only the new implicit UPN form will be accepted.


Note

The behavior described above implies that if you want to continue using implicit UPNs for user accounts, you must reissue all existing authentication certificates after the DNS name of a domain has changed before performing the clean up step as described in “Attribute Clean-up After Domain Rename” later in this document.

Explicit UPN: If a user account in Active Directory has an explicitly assigned value for its UPN attribute, it is said to have an explicit UPN used for authentication purposes. When the DNS name of a domain changes as a result of the domain rename operation the explicit UPNs of user accounts in the domain are not impacted. Hence, if you are using explicit UPNs for user accounts, no maintenance is necessary after the domain rename operation.

Enabling Certificate Enrollment in Renamed Domain

To enable certificate enrollment using either autoenrollment or the Certificates MMC snap-in in the new domain, a small change has to be made in Active Directory to the Enrollment Services Container in the configuration directory partition (cn=Enrollment Services,cn=Public Key Services, cn=Services,cn=Configuration,dc=ForestRootDomain). The CA object in this container has a dNSHostName attribute that still contains the old DNS name of the CA machine. You can use the following Visual Basic script to change the value of this attribute:

Container = “LDAP://CN=YOURCA,CN=Enrollment Services,CN=Public Key Services, CN=Services,CN=Configuration,DC=YoursubDomain,DC=YourDomain,DC=com”

Set obj = GetObject(container)

Obj.dnshostname = “NEWDNSNAMEOFTHECAMACHINE”

Obj.setinfo


Note

This procedure must be performed for all the CAs in your domain. Also note that container name is dependent on your domain configuration.

In addition, you must change the registry on the CA machine to reflect the new DNS name for the CA machine.


To update the DNS name of the CA machine

  1. On the CA machine, open registry editor and locate the entry CAServerName under HKLM\System\CurrentControlSet\CertSvc\Configuration\YourCAName.
  2. Change the value in CAServerName to correspond to the new DNS host name.

To enable proper Web enrollment for the user, you must also update the file that is used by the ASP pages used for Web enrollment. The following change must be made on all CA machines in your domain.


To update the Web enrollment file

  1. On the CA machine, search for the certdat.inc file (if you have used default installation settings, it should be located in the %windir%\system32\certsrv directory).
  2. Open the file, which appears as follows:

    <%’ CODEPAGE=65001 ‘UTF-8%>

    <%’ certdat.inc – (CERT)srv web – global (DAT)a

    ‘ Copyright (C) Microsoft Corporation, 1998 – 1999 %>

    <%    ‘ default values for the certificate request

        sDefaultCompany=””

        sDefaultOrgUnit=””

        sDefaultLocality=””

        sDefaultState=””

        sDefaultCountry=””


        ‘ global state

        sServerType=”Enterprise” ‘vs StandAlone

        sServerConfig=”OLDDNSNAME\YourCAName”

        sServerDisplayName=”YourCAName”

        nPendingTimeoutDays=10

        ‘ control versions

        sXEnrollVersion=”5,131,2510,0″

        sScrdEnrlVersion=”5,131,2474,0″

    %>

  3. Change the SServerConfig entry to have the NewDNSName of the CA machine.


To update the Shared Folder option

If the CA was installed with the shared folder option, the file certsrv.txt (under the shared folder) should be edited to reflect the new DNS name of the CA machine. Save a copy of this file prior to editing, open the file using Notepad.exe, make the change to the DNS name of the CA machine, and save the file.


To update the CA Web Proxy machine

If you have a web proxy machine (for CA web pages) whose DNS hostname changed as a result of the domain rename operation, you need to make changes to the following registry key:

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\CertSvc\Configuration

Under this key there is a value named “WebClientCAMachine” holding the DNS name of the CA machine. Change this value to correspond to the new DNS name.


To update the Windows 2000 machine

If the CA is on a machine running Windows 2000, you need to make changes to the following registry key:

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\CertSvc\Configuration\YOURCANAME\ExitModules\CertificateAuthority_MicrosoftDefault.Exit

Under this key their is a value named “LDAPRevocationDN” holding the LDAP extension for the CDP. Change this value to reflect the new DN for the LDAP extension.


To update the Netscape revocation check mechanism

On all machines where web pages for the CA reside (i.e., on the web proxy and the CA machines) there is a file named nsrev_CANAME.asp containing the DNS hostname of the CA machine that is used by the Netscape revocation checking mechanism. Search for this file and change the DNS hostname of the CA machine embedded in the file.

If you have used the default installations settings, this file will be in the folder %Windir%\system32\certsrv\certenroll and its content looks like the following.

<%

Response.ContentType = “application/x-netscape-revocation”

serialnumber = Request.QueryString

set Admin = Server.CreateObject(“CertificateAuthority.Admin”)

stat = Admin.IsValidCertificate(“CAMachineDnsHostname\CANAME”, serialnumber)

if stat = 3 then Response.Write(“0”) else Response.Write(“1”) end if

%>

Open this file with Notepad.exe and change the CAMachineDnsHostName to correspond to the new DNS host name.

Verifying Validity of CDP and AIA Extensions

CDP and AIA extensions can be hard coded, in which case the extension URLs will not reflect the new DNS name of the CA machine. First check to see whether the extensions are hard coded and, if they are, you must change the URL to reflect the new DNS name.

This procedure must be performed on every CA machine in each renamed domain.


To check whether extensions are flexible

  1. In the Certification Authority MMC snap-in, right-click the CA name and click Properties.
  2. On the Extensions tab, check the flexibility of the CDP and AIA extensions, as follows:

    Flexible extensions have the following format:

    http://<ServerDNSName>/CertEnroll/<CAName><CRLNameSuffix><DeltaCRLAllowed&gt;.crl

    Hard-coded extensions have the following format:

    http://mydnsname.mycompanyname.com/certenroll/<CAName><CRLNameSuffix><DeltaCRLAllowed>.crl

  3. If the CDP and AIA extensions are flexible you don’t need to change the Extensions.
  4. If the CDP and AIA extensions are not flexible, change the extension URLs to reflect new DNS names of the CA machine.
  5. Repeat this procedure for every CA machine in the domain.

Renewing Subordinate and Issuing CA Certificates

After all of the preceding CA-related procedures have been performed on all CA machines, you can renew certificates to update the CDP and AIA locations in the CA certificate. Renew all subordinate and issuing CAs certificates in hierarchical order (top down). In addition, update the Group Policy on all of the machines to ensure that they have new root CA certificates.

Publish New Certificate Revocation Lists

To publish new Delta and Base CRLs, on all of the CA machines in the renamed domain, run the following:

Certutil.exe –crl

Updating Domain Controller Certificates

The domain controller certificates have to be updated so that any authentication mechanism based on certificates (for example, replication and SmartCard via Kerberos) continues to work. To update these certificates, if template-based autoenrollment is set previous to domain rename, increment the version number for Domain Controller Authentication and Directory Email Replication Certificate templates to force re-enrollment. Otherwise, use the Group Policy to set Machine Based Autoenrollment. The domain controller machines will re-enroll and supercede the existing V1 Domain Controller Certificate.

You might also want to increase the version number on other templates (particularly those related with authentication) to pulse autoenrollment for the users and their machine.

Fix Cross and Qualified Subordination Certificates and name constraints. (see reference for Qualified Subordination).

Changing the User Identity for SCEP Add-on

If the Simple Certificate Enrollment Protocol (SCEP) Add-on for Microsoft Certificate Services is installed, you might need to change the identity of the user under whose context the MSCEP process was created. For example, if SCEP was originally running with the identity OriginalDomainname\UserName, then following domain rename, IIS will attempt to start the process with the same identity (the IIS metabase is not altered during domain rename). You can change this identity in IIS.


To change the user identity for SCEP in IIS

  1. In the IIS MMC snap-in, browse to Application pools.
  2. Under Application pools, right-click the folder for SCEP and click Properties.
  3. On the Identity tab, change the identity to correspond to the new domain name.

Miscellaneous Tasks

There are a number of miscellaneous follow-up tasks that you will need to perform once the core domain rename procedure is complete. These tasks are listed in Table 2 below. There is no particular order in which these tasks need to be performed.

Table 2    Miscellaneous Tasks Following Domain Rename

Task

Description

Publish service connection points for renamed TAPI-specific application directory partitions. If you renamed TAPI-specific application directory partitions in “STEP 4: Specify the New Forest Description” earlier in this document, then you need to publish service connection points in Active Directory for the new name of the application directory partition so that TAPI clients can locate it. At the same time, you can remove the service connection points for the old name of the application directory partition.

For example, suppose you had a TAPI-specific application partition named mstapi.cohovineyard.com that was configured for the domain cohovineyard.com. As a result of the DNS name of the domain changing to cohowinery.com, you renamed the corresponding application directory partition to mstapi.cohowinery.com during the domain rename operation.

You should now remove the service connection point for the old application directory partition name mstapi.cohovineyard.com by executing the following command from a command prompt on the control station:

tapicfg removescp /directory:mstapi.cohovineyard.com /domain:cohowinery.com

You should then publish a service connection point for the new application directory partition name mstapi.cohowinery.com by executing the following command from a command prompt on the control station:

tapicfg publishscp /directory:mstapi.cohowinery.com /domain:cohowinery.com /forcedefault

Orchestrate password reset for Digest authentication. Digest authentication mechanism uses the DNS domain name as the realm, which is used to precompute the Digest user password hash that is stored in Active Directory. If you are using Digest authentication in a domain that was renamed by the domain rename operation, a user in that domain will not be able to use Digest authentication until the user password is changed.

If you are using Digest authentication in a domain that is renamed, you will have to orchestrate a method to cause a password reset to occur. For example, you could do the following:

  1. After completing all procedures in “STEP 8: Execute Domain Rename Instructions” earlier in this document (the domain rename instructions have been executed and DCs have rebooted in a renamed domain), expire all user passwords by changing domain password policy in the renamed domain.
  2. Send out mail warning users that they must change their passwords immediately after they reboot their machines twice (as described in “Restart Member Computers” later in this document).

Users change their passwords by using Ctrl+Alt+Del.

Remove any redundant inter-domain trusts within your forest If you performed a forest restructure operation wherein the existing domains were rearranged into a different tree structure than before, then you would have created the necessary shortcut trusts to preserve complete trust between all domains in your new forest, as described in “Pre-Creating Parent-Child Trust Relationships for a Restructured Forest” earlier in this document. Such a restructure can result in one or more parent-child or tree-root trust relationships remaining in your forest that reflect the old domain structure and are no longer required. Although their presence does no harm, you can use the Active Directory Domains and Trusts MMC snap-in to remove these redundant trust relationships after the domain rename procedure is complete.
Fix Start menu shortcuts for Domain Security Policy and Domain Controller Security Policy MMC snap-ins. On domain controllers in a renamed domain, the shortcuts to the Domain Security Policy and Domain Controller Security Policy MMC snap-ins on the Start menu (under Programs\Administrative Tools) are rendered invalid as a result of the domain being renamed. Thus, on every DC in a renamed domain, you can use the following procedure to replace the shortcuts:

To fix the shortcut for the Domain Security Policy snap-in:

  1. Click Start, Programs, Administrative Tools.
  2. Right-click Domain Security Policy and then click Properties.
  3. Modify the Target field to replace the old distinguished name of the domain that appears as part of the /gpobject:
    parameter with the new distinguished name of the domain.
  4. Click OK.

For example, if you renamed the domain cohovineyard.com to cohowinery.com, then the /gpobject: parameter will need to be changed (notice the part of the distinguished name in bold in the parameter below) from

/gpobject:”LDAP://CN={31B2F340-016D-11D2-945F-00C04FB984F9},CN=Policies,CN=System,DC=cohovineyard,DC=com

to

/gpobject:”LDAP://CN={31B2F340-016D-11D2-945F-00C04FB984F9},CN=Policies,CN=System,DC=cohowinery,DC=com

To fix the shortcut for Domain Controller Security Policy snap-in:

  • Follow the procedure to fix the shortcut for the Domain Security Policy snap-in, above, but select Domain Controller Security Policy in Step 2.

For example, if you renamed the domain msn.com to msnzone.com, then the /gpobject: parameter will need to be changed (notice the part of the distinguished name in bold in the parameter below) from

/gpobject:”LDAP://CN= {6AC1786C-016F-11D2-945F-00C04fB984F9},CN=Policies,CN=System,DC=cohovineyard,DC=com

to

/gpobject:”LDAP://CN= {6AC1786C-016F-11D2-945F-00C04fB984F9},CN=Policies,CN=System,DC=cohowinery,DC=com

Remove the Group Policy to set Primary DNS Suffix of member computers in renamed domains. If you followed the recommendations to avoid excess replication due to member computers being renamed in a large domain, as described in “How to Configure Member Computers for Host Name Changes in Large Deployments” earlier in this document, you might have configured and applied a Group Policy to apply the Primary DNS Suffix setting to member computers in your renamed domains. Because the intended purpose of this Group Policy has now been served, it can be removed.
Remove DNS zones that are no longer needed. As a result of the domain DNS name changes that occurred during the domain rename operation, some of the DNS zones in your DNS infrastructure might no longer be needed. For example, if there was a DNS zone with a name that matched the old DNS name of a renamed domain, there might be no more DNS records (SRV, A, and PTR resource records) with the old domain suffix that need to be registered with DNS. In this case, such DNS zones that are no longer needed can be removed.

Back Up Domain Controllers

As a result of the domain rename operation, the content of the Active Directory database, system registry and Group Policy objects on the domain controllers has changed. Hence the existing back ups you have taken for the DCs are no longer valid.

Back up system state

Perform a full system state backup of all domain controllers in the forest so that you have a recoverable back up state. For information about how to back up domain controllers, see “Backing up and Restoring Active Directory” in the Directory Services Guide of the Windows Server 2003 Resource Kit.

Back up Group Policy objects

If you use Group Policy, you should consider downloading and installing the Group Policy Management Console (GPMC) from the Microsoft Web site. GPMC makes Group Policy easier to use, and adds functional improvements like the ability to back up Group Policy objects (GPOs) independently of the rest of Active Directory. GPOs backed up with GPMC prior to the domain rename operation cannot be restored after domain rename, so we recommend that after a domain rename operation you should use GPMC to back up all GPOs again.


Note

Saved GPMC consoles for a domain will no longer work after the domain is renamed. If you wish to use saved GPMC consoles, you will have to recreate them after the domain rename operation.

Restart Member Computers

With the domains having been renamed, you will need to orchestrate a process by which all member computers in the renamed domains in your forest recognize and propagate the domain name changes to all applications and services running on the member computer. This is most readily accomplished by notifying all users to restart their machines (member computers) to cause them to pick up the domain name changes.

To perform this step after domain rename:

  • Reboot member computers. Reboot twice all member workstations, member servers, and standalone servers (excluding domain controllers) that are running Windows 2000, Windows XP, and Windows Server 2003 Server family in the renamed domains in your forest. Rebooting twice ensures that each member computer learns of the domain name changes (LSA policy changes) and propagates them to all applications and services running on the member computer. Note that each computer must be restarted by logging into the computer and using the Shutdown/Restart administrative option. Computers must not be restarted by turning off the machine power and then turning it back on.
    • Member computers on a wired LAN can simply be rebooted twice.
    • Member computers on a wireless LAN should preferably be connected to a wired network while performing the two required reboots. If that is not possible, then the wireless network card should be ejected and then reinserted after logon prior to each reboot.


Note

Any servers that were already rebooted twice in previous steps do not need to be rebooted again at this step.

  • Unjoin and join any remote computers that connect to the renamed domain through a remote connection such as dial-up and VPN. If there are any remote computers that are members of a renamed domain which connect through remote connection mechanisms such dial-up lines or VPNs, you will need to unjoin each such member computer from the old domain name and then rejoin it to the new domain name.
  • Unjoin and join any Windows NT 4.0–based computers. If there are any computers running Windows NT 4.0 that are members of a renamed domain, you will need to unjoin each such member computer from the old domain name and then rejoin it to the new domain name.


Important

When the member computers are rebooted at this step, their DNS host names will also change after the reboot due to the fact that their Primary DNS Suffix changes as a result of the name change of the domain of which they are members. The primary DNS suffix
of a member computer of an Active Directory domain is, by default, configured to change automatically when domain membership of the computer changes. If you have very large domains whose DNS name was changed by the domain rename operation and that have a large number of member computers, you can potentially observe a large replication storm and a surge in network traffic as a result of the member computer reboots. For information about how to avoid excess replication under these conditions, see “Configuring Member Computers for Host Name Changes” earlier in this document.


Exchange-Specific Steps: Verify the Exchange Rename and Update Active Directory Connector

If the domain contains Exchange 2003 SP1servers, follow the steps for verifying the Exchange rename and updating Active Directory Connector as described in the “Exchange Domain Rename Fix-up Tool” document, which is available for download with the tool at http://www.microsoft.com/exchange/updates.

Attribute Clean-up After Domain Rename

This post-domain-rename clean-up step removes all values of the msDSDnsRootAlias and msDSUpdateScript attributes from Active Directory that were written during the domain rename operation.


Important

This clean-up step should be executed only after all member computers in the renamed domains have been rebooted (or machines running Windows NT 4.0 have been unjoined and rejoined to the renamed domain), as described in “Restart Member Computers” earlier in this document. If smartcard logon is used in your environment, make sure that all authentication certificates have been renewed before this step, otherwise authentication will start failing for the certificates.


To perform attribute clean up after domain rename

  1. On the control station, open a command prompt.
  2. At the command prompt, from within the X:\DomainRename directory, execute the following command:

    rendom /clean

The rendom /clean command removes the values for msDSDnsRootAlias and msDSUpdateScript attributes from Active Directory by connecting to the domain naming master domain controller.

After the actions performed at this step are completed, the new forest is ready for another domain rename (or forest restructuring) operation, if necessary.

Rename Domain Controllers (Optional)

The DNS host names of the domain controllers in the renamed domains do not change automatically as a result of the domain rename operation. In other words, the DNS suffix in the fully qualified DNS host name of a DC in the renamed domain will continue to reflect the old domain name. The DNS hostname of DCs in a renamed domain can optionally be changed at a later time using a special procedure.

Modification of the computer name causes updates to the DNS and Active Directory databases. The computer performs these updates automatically, and once the updated data propagates to the DNS servers and Active Directory domain controllers used by a client, the client is capable of locating and authenticating to the renamed computer. However, DNS and Active Directory replication latency (the time it takes for the name change to replicate throughout the databases) might cause a temporary inability of clients to locate or authenticate the renamed computer. Therefore, renaming a mission-critical server like the domain controller requires that you follow a computer rename preparation procedure prior to renaming the computer. This preparation procedure ensures that there will be no interruption in the ability of clients to locate or authenticate the renamed computer. For more information about how to rename a DC, see “Rename a domain controller” in Windows Server 2003 Server Help and Support Center.

Exchange-Specific Steps: Domain Controller Rename Follow-Up Steps

If you chose to rename domain controllers, follow the steps for updating the Recipient Update Service and DSAccess registry keys as described in the “Exchange Domain Rename Fix-up Tool” document, which is available for download with the tool at http://www.microsoft.com/exchange/updates.

Usage Syntax for Domain Rename Tools

Command Line Syntax for the Rendom Tool

The Rendom utility collects forest-wide information, monitors domain rename status, and performs the actions necessary to implement a domain rename in your forest. For more information about the sequence of steps necessary to perform a domain rename, see “Steps to Perform the Domain Rename Procedure” earlier in this document.

Syntax

rendom [/?] [/dc:{DCNAME | DOMAIN}]

[/user:USERNAME] [/pwd:{PASSWORD|*}]

[/list] [/upload] [/prepare] [/execute] [/end] [/clean] [/showforest] [/listfile:LISTFILE] [/statefile:STATEFILE] [/logfile:LOGFILE]

Parameters

Table 3 explains how you use the parameters in the Rendom syntax.

Table 3    Rendom Tool Arguments and Switches

Parameter

Description

/? This optional switch requests that the help syntax and the version number of the tool be displayed.
/dc:{DCNAME | DOMAIN} This optional switch requests that the command connect to a specific DC given by DCNAME (a DNS name or a NetBIOS name) to execute the operation specified by one of the operation switches /list, /upload, /prepare, /execute, or /clean. If the name of a domain is specified instead as DOMAIN, then the command should connect to a DC in that domain. [Default: when this switch is not specified, connect to any DC in the domain to which the computer on which this command is being run belongs]

If this command is being run on a computer that is not a member of any domain, then the /dc switch is required; otherwise an error will be returned.FROM SPEC. BELOW ARE NOT

/user:USERNAME This optional switch requests that the command run in the security context of a specific user given by USERNAME that is different from the logged on user. USERNAME can currently be given in only one form: domain\user (for example, ntdev\jdoe).
/pwd:{PASSWORD | *} This optional switch specifies the password for the alternate security context given by USERNAME. If the value specified for this switch is “*”, then the command should prompt for the password to allow hiding the password.
/list This operation creates a list of the directory partitions in the forest written as text to a file using an XML format. Thus, this command creates a textual description of the forest structure using a structured XML format.

If a filename is specified using the /listfile switch below, then the forest description is written into that file. If no filename is specified, then the forest description is written to a file named DOMAINLIST.XML in the current directory from which this command is being run. If the specified file already exists, then it is renamed and a new file is created.

/upload This operation performs the following functions:

  1. Based on the new forest description provided in the file given by the /listfile switch (or the file DOMAINLIST.XML in the current directory, by default), it generates an instructions file in the form of a special script that will later be executed on every DC in the forest. The instructions file is not a file that is stored on the disk.
  2. Writes the auto-generated script (instructions file) to the msDSUpdateScript attribute of the Partitions container on the DC that holds the domain naming master role.
  3. Sets the msDSDnsRootAlias attribute on the crossRef object corresponding to every domain being renamed.
  4. Writes a new state file given by the /statefile switch (or the file DCLIST.XML in the current directory, by default) to track the state of every DC in the forest. All DCs are marked to be in the Initial state. If the specified file already exists, then it is renamed and a new file is created.

The forest configuration is frozen for certain types of operations after successful completion of this command.

/prepare This operation attempts to contact every DC in the forest (as tracked by the state file) and verifies the following:

  1. The correct instructions file (the special script uploaded by the /upload operation) has replicated to the DC.
  2. The changes dictated by the instructions file are consistent with the contents of the directory partition replicas held on the DC.
  3. The DC has authorized execution of the domain rename operation.

Upon successful verification of the above conditions on a given DC, the corresponding state for that DC is advanced to the Prepared state in the state file.

/execute This operation attempts to contact every DC in the forest (as tracked by the state file) and execute the changes dictated by the instructions file to cause the actual domain rename to occur.

Upon successful execution of the instructions file on a given DC, the corresponding state in the state file for that DC is advanced to Done — a final state indicating that the restructuring is finished on that DC. If an irrecoverable error occurs on a given DC, the corresponding state in the state file for that DC is set to Error — also a final state, indicating that the DC is not functioning and will need to have Active Directory removed (can no longer be used as a DC).

The state file used for this operation is the one specified by the /statefile switch (or the file DCLIST.XML in the current directory, by default).

/end This operation attempts to contact the DC holding the domain naming master role of the forest and removes the msDS-UpdateScript attribute on the Partitions container.

Upon successful removal of the above attribute on the domain naming master, this operation returns a SUCCESS summary status/message. The forest configuration (that was frozen for certain types of operations following the /upload command) is now unfrozen.

/clean This operation attempts to contact the DC holding the domain naming master role of the forest and performs the following functions:

  1. Removes all values of the msDSDnsRootAlias attribute on all crossRef objects in the Partitions container.
  2. Removes the msDS-UpdateScript attribute on the Partitions container.

Upon successful removal of the above attributes on the domain naming master, this operation returns a SUCCESS summary status/message.

/showforest This command requests that the forest description (represented by the list of its directory partitions and their hierarchy) contained in the “list file” be displayed in a user-friendly format with indentation used to reflect the domain hierarchy. The “list file” will typically have been generated by the /list operation of this command.

If a filename is specified using the /listfile switch below, then the forest description is read from that file. If no file name is specified, then the forest description is assumed to be in a file named DOMAINLIST.XML in the current directory from which this command is being run. If the specified file (or the default file) does not exist, then an error is reported with an indication to execute the /list operation first.

/listfile:LISTFILE This optional switch specifies that LISTFILE is the name of the file used to hold the forest description. The list file contains a list of the directory partitions in the forest written as text using an XML format. This switch can be used to specify the output file for the /list operation, or the input file for the /upload operation.

If this switch is not specified, then the forest description is assumed to be in a file named DOMAINLIST.XML in the current directory from which this command is being run.

/statefile:STATEFILE This optional switch specifies that STATEFILE is the name of the file used to track the state of each DC in the forest during the domain rename operation. The state file contains a list of all the domain controllers in the forest and their corresponding states written as text using an XML format. This switch can be used to specify the state file for the /upload, /prepare, and /execute operations.

If this switch is not specified, then the state of the domain controllers is assumed to be in a file named DCLIST.XML in the current directory from which this command is being run.

/logfile:LOGFILE This optional switch specifies that LOGFILE is the name of the file used to write the execution log of the command as any operation executes. The contents of the log file varies depending on which operation (/list, /upload, /prepare, /execute, /clean) is executing.

If this switch is not specified, then the execution log is written into a file named RENDOM.LOG in the current directory from which this command is being run.

Command-Line Syntax for the gpfixup Tool

The command-line utility gpfixup is used to fix the dependencies that Group Policy objects (GPOs) and Group Policy links in Active Directory have on domain DNS and/or NetBIOS names after a domain rename operation.

Syntax

gpfixup [/?] [/v] [/dc:DCNAME]

[/user:USERNAME] [/pwd:{PASSWORD|*}]

[/olddns:OLDDNSNAME] [/newdns:NEWDNSNAME]

[/oldnb:OLDFLATNAME] [/newnb:NEWFLATNAME]

[/sionly]

Parameters

Table 4 specifies the command line arguments and switches for this tool.

Table 4    Gpfixup Tool Arguments and Switches

Parameter

Description

/? This optional switch requests that the help syntax and the version number of the tool be displayed.
/v This optional switch requests that detailed status messages be displayed. In the absence of this switch, only error messages or a brief summary status message of SUCCESS or FAILURE is displayed.
/olddns:OLDDNSNAME When the domain rename operation changes the DNS name of a domain, this optional switch specifies that the old DNS name of the renamed domain was OLDDNSNAME (for example, olddom.microsoft.com). This switch can be specified if and only if the /newdns switch is also specified to provide a new domain DNS name.
/newdns:NEWDNSNAME When the domain rename operation changes the DNS name of a domain, this optional switch specifies that the new DNS name of the renamed domain is NEWDNSNAME (for example, newdom.microsoft.com). This switch can be used to specify the new domain DNS name if and only if the /olddns switch is specified to provide the old domain DNS name.
/oldnb:OLDFLATNAME When the domain rename operation changes the NetBIOS name of a domain, this optional switch specifies that the old NetBIOS name of the renamed domain was OLDFLATNAME (for example, olddom). This switch can be specified if and only if the the /newnb switch is specified to provide a new domain NetBIOS name.
/newnb:NEWFLATNAME When the domain rename operation changes the NetBIOS name of a domain, this optional switch specifies that the new NetBIOS name of the renamed domain is NEWFLATNAME (for example, newdom). This switch can be used to specify the new NetBIOS name of the domain if and only if the /oldnb switch is specified to provide the old NetBIOS name of the domain.
/sionly This optional switch requests that only the Group Policy fix up relating to managed software installation (i.e., SI extension for Group Policy) be performed. Skip the actions that fix up the GP links and the SYSVOL paths in the GPOs.
/dc:DCNAME This optional switch requests that the command connect to a specific DC given by DCNAME (a DNS name or a NetBIOS name) to execute the fix-up operation. If a DCNAME is specified, it must host a writable replica of the domain directory partition given either by:

  1. The DNS name NEWDNSNAME using the /newdns switch, or
  2. The NetBIOS name NEWFLATNAME using the /newnb switch.

[Default: when this switch is not specified, connect to any DC in the renamed domain given by either NEWDNSNAME or NEWFLATNAME; use the function DsGetDcName( ) to obtain a proper DC for the given domain].

/user:USERNAME This optional switch requests that the command run in the security context of a specific user given by USERNAME that is different from the logged on user. USERNAME can currently be given in only one form: domain\user (for example, ntdev\jdoe).
/pwd:{PASSWORD | *} This optional switch specifies the password for the alternate security context given by USERNAME. If the value specified for this switch is “*”, then the command should prompt for the password to allow hiding the password.

Checklists and Worksheets

Checklists

This Appendix provides summary checklists for the tasks to be performed during the various phases of the domain rename operation. It also includes suggested worksheet formats that can be used to gather relevant information about your Active Directory infrastructure in preparation for the domain rename operation and to track progress as the procedure is performed.

Satisfying Domain Rename Requirements

This checklist provides the list of requirements that must be met before a domain rename operation can begin.

Satisfying domain rename requirements
q Domain rename operation is not supported in an Active Directory forest that has Exchange 2000 deployed in it. Domain rename operation is supported in a forest that has Exchange 2003 SP1; the Exchange Domain Rename Fix-up Tool is required (http://www.microsoft.com/exchange/updates).
q Every domain controller in the forest must be running either the Microsoft® Windows® Server 2003 Standard edition, the Microsoft® Windows® Server 2003 Enterprise edition, or the Microsoft® Windows® Server 2003 Datacenter edition of the server operating system.
q Forest functional level must be raised to Windows Server 2003 functionality.

Note: For more information about forest functional levels, see “Active Directory Functional Levels” in the Directory Services Guide of the Windows Server 2003 Resource Kit. For more information about how to determine forest functional levels, see “To verify forest level” and “To raise forest level” in the Windows Server 2003 Help and Support Center.

q All DFS root servers must be running Windows 2000 with Service Pack 3 or a higher release of the Windows server.
q Administrative privileges of “Enterprise Admins” is required.

Preparing for the Domain Rename

This checklist provides the list of preliminary steps that need to be performed (some may be optional depending on your situation and business needs) in preparation for the domain rename operation.

Creating necessary shortcut trust relationships within the forest and documenting all trusts
q Compile list of domains to be renamed based on the desired new forest structure.

Note: See Worksheet 1 below for suggested format.

q Create shortcut trusts (if necessary).
q Compile list of all existing trusts – shortcut, external and cross-forest – in the forest.

Note: See Worksheet 2 below for suggested format.

Preparing DNS zones
q Compile list of DNS zones for domain rename.
q Create new DNS zones as needed due to the name changes to be performed.

Note: See Worksheet 3 below for suggested format.

Preparing folder redirection and roaming user profiles on domain-based DFS
q Change folder redirection from domain-based DFS paths to either standalone DFS paths or server based shares.

Note: See Worksheet 4 below for suggested format.

q Change roaming user profiles from domain-based DFS paths to either standalone DFS paths or server based shares.

Note: See Worksheet 4 below for suggested format.

Preparing member computers for host name changes
q Configure member computers for impending host name changes as a result of domain rename.

Note: Use Worksheet 3 below.

Preparing Certification Authorities (CAs)
q Verify conditions that preclude successful certificate management.
q Prepare URLs for CDP and AIA extensions.
q Ensure CA validity through the domain rename process and for sufficient time following it by verifying that the CA certificates and CRLs do not expire soon.

Note: See Worksheet 5 below for recording CRL expiration. For more information about managing certificates, see “Certificate Services and Public key infrastructure” in the Distributed Services Guide of the Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Resource Kit and see Windows Server 2003 Help and Support Center.

Exchange-Specific Steps
q Refer to the Exchange Domain Rename Fix-up Tool document (http://www.microsoft.com/exchange/updates).

Performing the Domain Rename

This checklist provides the list of tasks that need to be performed during the core domain rename operation.

Setting up the control station
q Install one of Windows Server 2003 Standard Edition, Windows Server 2003 Enterprise Edition, or Windows Server 2003 Datacenter Edition operating system on the control station.
q Install the Support Tools from the Support\Tools folder on the Server CD/DVD. In particular, verify that the tools repadmin.exe and dfsutil.exe are installed on the control station.
q Install the latest domain rename tools (download from http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=5585) on the control station.
Locking down the forest against changes
q Discontinue changes of the following kind in the forest:

  • Create or delete domains
  • Create or delete application directory partitions
  • Add or remove domain controllers
  • Create or delete trusts
  • Add or remove attributes to the partial attribute set that replicate to the global catalog
Backing up domain controllers
q Perform a full system state backup of all domain controllers.

Note: For information about how to back up domain controllers, see “Backing up and Restoring Active Directory” in the Directory Services Guide of the Windows Server 2003 Resource Kit.

Performing the domain rename
q Generate the current forest description.
q Specify the new forest description.

Note: Verify that the forest description matches the desired list of domains to be renamed as recorded in Worksheet 1.

q Generate the domain rename instructions.
q Push domain rename instructions to all DCs and verify DNS readiness.
q Verify readiness of domain controllers to execute domain rename instructions.

Note: Use Worksheet 6 below.

q Execute domain rename instructions. Verify that:

  • All domain controllers executed successfully
  • All domain controllers completed automatic reboot successfully

Note: Use Worksheet 5 below to track progress of domain controllers.

q Reboot the control station twice.
q Perform Exchange-specific steps; see the Exchange Domain Rename Fix-up Tool document (http://www.microsoft.com/exchange/updates).
q Unfreeze the forest configuration.
q Re-establish external trusts and cross-forest trusts.

Note: Use Worksheet 2 below.

q Fix Distributed File System (Dfs) topology.

Note: Use Worksheet 4 below.

q Reboot all member servers that host Software Distribution Points (SDPs), network locations from which users deploy managed software in your environment.

Note: Use Worksheet 7 below.

q Fix Group Policy objects and links.

After the Domain Rename

This checklist provides the list of tasks that need to be performed (some may be optional depending on your situation and business needs) after the core domain rename procedure has been completed.

Verifying certificate security
q Prepare URLs for CDP and AIA extensions after domain rename.
q Verify the use of User Principal Names (UPNs).

Note: Add old UPN suffixes to Active Directory if needed.

q Enable certificate enrollment in renamed domain.
q Verify the validity of CDP and AIA extensions.
q Renew subordinate and issuing CA certificates.

Note: This should be performed in a hierarchical fashion.

q Update Group Policy on all CAs to ensure they have the new root CA certificates (for each CA in the domain.

Note: Use Worksheet 8 below.

q Publish new Certificate Revocation Lists(CRLs).
q Update domain controller certificates.
q Change the user identity for SCEP add-on (if used).
Miscellaneous tasks
q Publish service connection points for renamed TAPI-specific application directory partitions..
q Orchestrate password reset for Digest authentication.
q Remove any redundant inter-domain trusts within your forest.
q Fix Start menu shortcuts for Domain Security Policy and Domain Controller Security Policy MMC snap-ins.
q Remove the Group Policy to set Primary DNS Suffix of member computers in renamed domains.
q Remove DNS zones that are no longer needed..
Backing up domain controllers and Group Policies
q Perform a full system state backup of domain controllers.
q If you use Group Policy Management Console (GPMC) to back up GPOs, then perform a backup of all GPOs using GPMC.
Restarting member computers
q Reboot twice all member computers running Windows 2000 or higher.
q Unjoin and then rejoin any member computer running Windows NT 4.0.
q Unjoin and then rejoin any remote member computer that connects remotely through remote connections such as dial-up or VPNs.
Exchange-Specific Steps
q Refer to the Exchange Domain Rename Fix-up Tool document (http://www.microsoft.com/exchange/updates).
Cleaning up domain rename state after rename operation is complete
q Perform attribute clean-up following domain rename.

Note: This step must be performed only after you are sure that all member computers in the renamed domains have rebooted twice (or the Windows NT 4.0 computers have unjoined and rejoined the renamed domain). Hence, it is good to allow 1 to 3 months to elapse before performing this step.

Worksheets

This section includes suggested worksheet formats that can be used to gather relevant information about your Active Directory infrastructure in preparation for the domain rename operation and to track progress as the procedure is performed.

Worksheet 1: Domain Name Change Information

Note: This worksheet is intended to provide the list of name changes that will be completed during the domain rename process. List all forest and domain changes, and all application directory partitions.

Date: Completed by:

Old NetBIOS Name

Old DNS Name

New NetBIOS Name

New DNS Name

1
2
3
4
5
Worksheet 2: Trust Information

Note: Use this worksheet to document all trust (shortcut and external) relationships, and the status of each trust that needs to be created or removed.

Date:

Completed by:

Trusting Domain Name Trusted Domain Name Trust Direction (One-way, Two-way) Trust type

(Shortcut, inter-domain, cross-forest)

Date Created/ Removed
1
2
3
4
5
Note: This worksheet should be used to list all DNS zones that must be added in preparation for the domain rename procedure.
Date:

Completed by:

DNS Zone Name Add/Remove Completed? Date/Time
1
2
3
4
5
Worksheet 4: DFS, Folder Redirection, Roaming Profiles

Note: It is recommended that you use this worksheet to document all domain DFS paths, including those used by folder redirection, and roaming profiles. All domain DFS paths will require reconfiguration after domain rename. Refer to the sections on Folder Redirection and Roaming Profiles earlier in this document for more information about steps required to ensure uninterrupted access to redirected folders and roaming profiles.

Date:

Completed by:

Domain Name Old Domain DFS Path New Domain DFS Path Server Share Path for Folder Redirection and Roaming Profiles Group Policy

Updated?

Date/Time?

DFS Fixed?

Date/Time?

1
2
3
4
5
Worksheet 5: Domain Controller Information
Date:

Completed by:

Domain DC Name IP Address FSMO Roles

held by DC

CRL Expiry Execute

Successfully?

AutomaticReboot? DCDiag Notes
1
2
3
4
5
Worksheet 6: Domain Rename Execute Readiness

Note: This worksheet should be used to track the readiness of domains, forests, and application partitions prior to the execution of the rename operation. The information in this table can also be used to sanity check the forest description prior to proceeding.

Date:

Completed by:

Domain/Application Partition Run DCDiag? Backed Up? DNS Zone Ready?
1
2
3
4
5
Worksheet 7: Software Distribution Point (SDP) Servers
Date:

Completed by:

SDP Server Name SDP Server IP address Reboot once?

Date/Time

Reboot Twice?

Date/Time

Physical Location
1
2
3
4
5
Worksheet 8: Certificate Authority (CA) Information
Date:

Completed by:

Old DNS Name of CA New DNS Name of CA Alias Created?

Date/Time

Certificate

Enrollment

enabled?

CDP and

AIA extensions

flexible?

Subordinate

and Issuing

CA Certs

Renewed?

Group Policy

Updated?

1
2
3
4
5

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